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"New Study: Fracking Affects Newborns." That story and other headlines for the week ending December 17, 2017[ Show/Hide Transcript ]

Babies Born within Two Miles of Fracking Sites Have Greater Risk of Negative Health Effects

Babies born within two miles of fracking sites have been found to be more likely than others to have low birth weights. This could have serious effects on their well-being for their entire lives. Researchers from Princeton, UCLA, and the University of Chicago conducted the analysis in Pennsylvania's Marcellus Shale basin. The closer the fracking sites, the more significant the effect on birth weights. A statement from Princeton University said that babies born within about a half a mile of fracking sites are 25 percent more at risk of low birth weights.

That puts them at greater risk of infant mortality, ADHD, asthma, lower test scores, and lower lifetime earnings. Infants born to mothers living beyond 2 miles experienced little to no impact to their health. The report published in the journal Science Advances examined 10 years of birth statistics covering more than a million newborns. The researchers compared infants born to mothers living at different distances from fracking sites, both before and after it was initiated at a well. They also compared siblings who were exposed to the drilling method, and those who were not.

The study did not look at causes of the lower birth rates. One of the authors said that, while it has been known pollution from hydraulic fracturing impacts health, they do not yet know where that pollution is coming from—the air, water, other chemicals onsite, or an increase in traffic. However, she warned that local officials are faced with the difficult decision of whether to allow fracking in order to boost their local economies—despite the health implications. The controversial practice of fracking has led to calls in some states, including Colorado and Texas, for setbacks of drilling from residential developments in order to protect public health.

Sierras Grew In Height During Recent California Drought

The Sierra Nevada Mountains grew in height during the recent California drought. The cause of the rise is due to geophysics. The earth’s crust essentially sits on top of a semi-fluid layer. To envision this, the crust is like a cargo ship sitting in the water. When you unload it, the ship rises, and same with the earth’s crust. NASA scientists used instruments to confirm that the Sierras grew about an inch in height when 45 billion tons of water was “unloaded” from them during the drought, just like unloading a cargo ship. As Forbes reports, the same phenomenon led to the sinking of the earth’s crust in the Houston area during Hurricane Harvey as the weight from all the rain–almost 300 trillion pounds of water–caused the opposite of what happened in California.

European Researchers Have Found Soil Erosion Across Planet

Scientists have found that a lot of soil is being eroded across the planet. Soil is not an infinite resource, and it is essential for producing food, animal feed, and growing fibers, in addition to cleaning and retaining water. Researchers from the University of Basel and the European Commission found that almost 36 billion tons of soil is lost every year due to water erosion, and human causes such as deforestation.

The greatest soil loss is in South America which is likely due to the increased agricultural production on lands which used to be forested. The study also concluded that soil erosion can be reduced by conservation practices. While not mentioned in the report those practices include using cover crops and no till farming which can hold soils in place and reduce wind and water erosion.

Trump Administration Fights Efforts to Confront Climate Change

There were a number of developments about climate change involving the Trump administration.

A federal appellate court in San Francisco heard arguments last week by government lawyers asking that a lawsuit brought by children should be thrown out, and not go to trial. The child plaintiffs and Earth Guardians assert that the U.S. is causing climate change which violates their rights to life, liberty and property. The Trump administration wants to avoid a trial in the case, but as reported in Grist, experts say there’s good reason to think the kids’ case will be allowed to proceed.

In other matters, Interior Secretary Ryan Zinke reprimanded the chief of Joshua Tree National Park for tweeting about climate change. The head of the southern California park had said that the overwhelming consensus was that human activity is the driving force behind global warming. The Hill reports that the Trump administration doesn’t want national park heads to make official communications about climate change.

And a few months ago, you may recall there was a push by the EPA to have a debate between those who deny climate change and those mainstream scientists who rely on facts. The administration was trying to put deniers on the same level as 97 percent of scientist who have concluded that global warming is human caused. But now the debates, dubbed Red Team – Blue team, have been put on hold according to E & E News. Apparently, the Red team is in disarray over how the debate should take place.

Last week it was also learned that the EPA has hired a private firm to investigate its own employees, including those who have retired. The targets are those who criticized the Trump administration. The New York Times reports that the head of the private firm said he was taking aim at “resistance” figures in the federal government.

EPA’s Ironic Problem

And finally, while the EPA is attempting to dig up dirt on anyone trying to tarnish the agency, some bad press might be oozing up from within the building. In what might be the winner for the best metaphor of 2017, a plumbing problem at EPA headquarters has resulted in sewage exploding out of water fountains. An EPA staffer told E & E News that one fountain producing the black, foul-smelling muck is right outside the office of Samantha Dravis, the associate administrator for policy at the agency, who according to the staffer came to the EPA without any prior environmental policy experience.

In fact, Trump’s EPA has rolled back over 50 environmental regulations and is hard at work trying to stop the Obama administration’s Clean Water Rule, which looks to protect streams and wetlands that provide clean drinking water. It took Twitter no time to pounce on the irony of an agency designed to safeguard our water supplies—spewing undrinkable sludge.

"Arctic Melting May Be Triggering California’s Drought and Fires." That story and other headlines for the week ending December 10, 2017[ Show/Hide Transcript ]

Peak of California's Rainy Season Is Bone Dry and According to One Expert, a Climate Emergency

As of Sunday morning, the largest fire in southern California was again raging out of control and threatening the towns of Carpentaria and Montecito. The Los Angeles Times reported that nevertheless, firefighters had made some progress in other areas. The Thomas Fire in Ventura County is the biggest so far destroying about 700 structures. Other smaller fires occurred in Los Angeles County, Riverside, and south to the San Diego. At one point the Thomas Fire was growing by the size of a football field every second.

Meteorologist, Eric Holthaus writing in Rolling Stone, noted that it now should be the peak of California’s rainy season, but instead bone-dry winds fed the wildfires. Rainfall in the Los Angeles area has been scant. From Oct. 1, until now, L.A. normally receives two inches but has received only about a tenth of an inch. “There is no fire season anymore,” a Cal Fire spokesman told Reuters, particularly in Southern California, meaning fires are occurring year-round. And, Governor Jerry Brown said that the situation was the new normal.

Holthaus says there's no denying the facts anymore: What's happening in California is a "climate emergency." And what scientists have been warning about for decades is here. A new study out last week by researchers at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory concludes that the massive ice thaw in the arctic is triggering changes in the atmosphere that are likely to shrink rainfall in California.

Warming In Arctic Freaks Out NOAA’s Weather Station

New data is showing that the Arctic is warming faster than the rest of the planet. Each month NOAA produces a climate report. One of the stations where it receives data is located in Utqiaġvik, Alaska, formerly called Barrow–the northernmost place of the U.S. But the data this December from that station was missing, as were all of the numbers for 2017 and for the last few months of 2016.

Deke Arndt writes on NOAA’s website that the average temperature at the weather station has changed so rapidly that it effectively stopped the location from being used for analysis, leaving northern Alaska appearing a little cooler than it really was. He told the online news site Earther that it is the first time climate change is responsible for an American weather station being messed up.

The actual data on the warming Arctic is dramatic. Arndt compared two time periods, over the last 40 years. On average Utqiaġvik warmed 6.5°F. Even more striking is that in October of this year the temperature was nearly 8 degrees higher than the average.

Bears Ears May Be Open to Uranium Mining After Trump Reduces Boundaries

Donald Trump radically reduced by about 85 percent the size of the Bears Ears monument established by Barack Obama. Trump also reduced Grand Staircase Escalante by almost 40 percent from what President Bill Clinton had designated.

Five Native American tribes have already filed suit to stop Trump’s action, and Patagonia, the outdoor clothing company sued calling the move illegal. The tribes’ point is that the Antiquities Act does not allow a president to revoke or modify a monument—only to designate one. At least two other suits were also filed by 10 environmental and wilderness groups.

Unless Trump’s action is stopped, The Salt Lake City Tribune reports that unprotected lands could be eligible for drilling. Interior Secretary Ryan Zinke and top Utah Republicans said mining and drilling issues played no role in the decision. But the Washington Post uncovered documents showing that a uranium company lobbied to scale back Bears Ears so it could get easier access to deposits. Uranium mining is particularly sensitive to the Navajo which is one of the 5 tribes suing. The Navajo’s nearby reservation has about 500 old mines which have not been cleaned up and still contaminate drinking-water wells, springs, and storage tanks.

Puerto Rican Situation Still Grave; Tax Plan Could Make It Worse

The official death toll in Puerto Rico after Hurricane Maria has come under scrutiny. The New York Times analyzed data and found that in the 42 days after the Category 4 storm, more than 1,000 people than usual died across the island. But the official toll is only 64. One of difficulties in determining the fatalities may be the lack of electricity because only about 65 percent of the island has power restored.

The situation in Puerto Rico is still grave. CNN reported last week that the Army Corps of Engineers has installed about 18,000 temporary roofs on people’s homes, but this is only a bit over one quarter of those requested.

The mayor of San Juan, Carmen Yulín Cruz, is also pointing out another devastating problem facing Puerto Rico: The Republican tax bill. The House version would effectively impose a 20% tax on goods manufactured in Puerto Rico, which could kill any chance of rebuilding the island. Other officials say that the result would be companies such as pharmaceuticals moving to other countries.

Scientists Record Earth’s Humming but Don’t Know Where It’s Coming From

If we were able to strip away all the daily sounds we’re accustomed to—traffic, music, or even birds chirping, we’d be made aware of something scientists have known for decades: the earth...hums. Scientists have been attempting to record the hum since the late 1950s, and there have been hundreds of attempts to measure it using seismometers on land, but no one has been certain where it comes from. Now, new research is attempting to explain it, and scientists think it might have something to do with the ocean. And because water covers 70 percent of the Earth, if seismologists want to get at the source of this phenomenon, it would be good to detect it under the sea.

European scientists did just that. They placed seismometers near Madagascar to make the first observations of the Earth’s buzz from the bottom of the ocean, which is tricky because the underwater world is noisy, with waves and earthquakes, and migrations of sea life. But, the team was able to use signals from seismometers that they’d placed on the ocean floor and cross-reference with data from terrestrial stations—and voilá—all that remained was the hum.

And even though the buzz is imperceptible to our ears, recording it is an important step toward figuring out what actually produces it. Hypotheses range from atmospheric disturbances or ocean waves pounding on the sea floor, to possibly currents whisking over continental shelves. Whatever the cause, this new research may get scientists closer to identifying the source, which could give us more knowledge about the inner workings of our planet—and help us be more in sync with the tune it hums.

"Kayaks That Make Music for Science." That story and other headlines for the week ending December 3, 2017[ Show/Hide Transcript ]

Some See Senate Tax Bill as a Negative for Wildlife Refuge and Renewables

The tax bill that Senate Republicans passed in the wee hours on Saturday morning contains provisions that affect the environment in not so good ways, according to some.

First, the bill allows oil and gas production in a portion of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge in Alaska. While one estimate says production could generate about 1 billion dollars in revenue, it could threaten critical habitat for hundreds of animal species, and sacred lands for Native Americans. National Geographic reports that the refuge is the largest in the U.S. and the only one in the country that is home to grizzly and black bears, with denning sites for polar bears. It also provides a corridor for wildlife from Canada across Alaska to the Chukchi Sea.

Wind and solar companies are worried that the Senate bill will hurt complicated provisions about investments in renewables. Peter Kelley, of the American Wind Energy Association, told the Washington Post that the bill could kill over half the wind projects in America. Another effect of the bill could hurt young developing scientists by halting tax breaks for all graduate students including those in environmental studies programs. The bill now goes to the House for reconciliation discussions.

Decision Giving Native American Tribe Rights to Groundwater Dating Back 150 Years Stands

The U.S. Supreme Court has allowed a lower court decision to stand which could have far reaching implications for water rights. The decision affirms the rights of a Native American tribe to groundwater dating back to the 1870s when the government created their reservation. The federal appellate court established that the Cahuilla Tribe of the Agua Caliente band has special reserved rights to groundwater going back 150 years. The Desert Sun reports that the decision will give the tribe more of a say in negotiations and court battles. Jim Cioffi, of the Desert Water Agency told the newspaper that the case could completely change water management in their area.

The decision may affect the rights of tribes other than those in southern California where the dispute arose. Leon Szeptycki of Stanford University, said that the decision is a strong affirmation of tribal water rights around the West and may affect surface as well as groundwater. The case heads back to the lower court early next year.

Insurers and Investors Are Concerned about Climate Change

Climate change is increasingly being taken into consideration by insurers and investors. A global network of 28 insurance organizations, known as ClimateWise, has warned that this year’s natural disasters and extreme weather events have put 2017 on track to become the most expensive on record. The chair of the organization of insurers told CleanTechnica that his industry has been shaken by climate perils that affect urban centers. The organization is also warning about an insurance gap. For example, the Houston area sustained about 180 billion dollars of damage due to Hurricane Harvey, but only about 10% of that was covered.

Investors in municipal bonds are showing their concern about climate change also. Last week, Moody’s, the bond rating agency, explained how it takes climate change into consideration when it rates city and state bonds. Among the important factors are rising sea levels and flooding, as well as increases in the frequency of extreme weather events like tornadoes, wildfires, and storms. Moody’s ratings are important to investors and can affect the interest rates that municipalities and states pay when they issue bonds. A Moody’s representative told Bloomberg that the agency will ask cities and states what they are doing to mitigate exposure from climate change when it’s determining credit ratings.

Two Stories from Mexico Revolve around Water Conservation and Alcohol

Two endeavors in Mexico around producing some of our favorite alcoholic beverages are getting attention from water watchers—but for very different reasons. First, a construction project by Constellation Brands, which brews Corona among other labels, has spurred resistance from some who say the company will take scarce water from Mexico for beer destined for the U.S. As The Desert Sun reports, Mexican farmers say that, as the brewery drinks up more water and pressures on the Colorado River grow, they are likely to get less for their crops. Protesters have set up camps outside the construction site sleeping in tents guarding the irrigation canal that runs along the brewery’s border. A water expert in Mexicali told the paper that there’s not enough for the brewery, but added that one possibility might be for the company to treat agricultural runoff for reuse.

The idea of recycled water is already in full swing just a couple of hours to the west. In Tijuana, an Italian winemaker is using reclaimed wastewater from a treatment plant to irrigate 800 grapevines. Reuters reports the wine making icon, Camillo Magoni, says the finished product tastes like a Cabernet Sauvignon and there is no difference in the flavor. He said the recycled water is very clean and crystalline. According to Reuters experts say that recycled water can be up to seven times cheaper than desalination, and is more sustainable than taking water from over-exploited aquifers, rivers, and lakes.

Listen as Scientific Data Is Transformed into Art

And finally, getting out in a kayak is wonderful way to explore waterways, whether you're out on the ocean or paddling up a river—you can just relax and take in the sights from a unique perspective on the water. But what if you could take that blissful ride and put it to use for science? Researchers in the UK are hoping you’d find that a cool idea. They’ve created the "Sonic Kayak"—a boat rigged with sensors and microphones to gather underwater data for research.

It’s called a sonic kayak because as the paddlers move along the water, not only will onboard computers gather that information, but the kayaker will be serenaded by sonifications of the data in real time! The result is a cross between a musical instrument and a research tool. The hope is that the boat's thermometers and microphones will generate things like temperature maps, which can document climate change, or possibly help to compare human-caused noise pollution versus wildlife sounds. In both cases, the kayaks would provide data that’s currently hard to get using standard research equipment. The team behind the sonic kayaks just published instructions on how to build one in the journal PLOS Biology last week hoping to entice both professionals and citizens into conducting science.

"Fertilizers: A Ticking Time Bomb for Water?" That story and other headlines for the week ending November 19, 2017[ Show/Hide Transcript ]

27 Governments Agree to Phase Out Coal While U.S. Promotes It at COP23

The two-week climate change conference in Bonn known as COP23 wrapped up last week. The gathering of more than 14,000 was not predicted to make major decisions, but there were important developments. All nations, except for the U.S. reaffirmed their commitment to the Paris Accord to attempt to keep global temperatures from rising more than 1.5 degrees Celsius.

Those countries were joined by some U.S. states, cities, and non-governmental entities who attended the conference despite the Trump Administration’s announcement it will pull out of the accord. They called themselves the "We Are Still In" campaign. An effort lead by the U.K., Canada and the Marshall Islands to phase out coal gained support from 27 governments. In stark contrast, the U.S. held a forum promoting coal and other fossil fuels in addition to nuclear power. Protestors at that event sang a version of "God Bless America" with lyrics adapted to an anti-coal message. Some developed countries pledged almost 200 million dollars to help developing countries meet their climate goals.

There still is much distance between where the world is and where it needs to be in order to hold global warming to the goal no more than a 1.5 or even 2-degrees Celsius rise by end of century. The UN released numbers showing that the world is on track for an increase of 3.4 degrees by 2100. The next step in the Paris Accord process is for the parties to develop a rule book to help verify whether countries are making progress in reducing greenhouse gasses.

Nitrate Problem Will Continue to Pollute Even After Fertilizers Are Curtailed

Much of the chemical fertilizers used in agriculture contain nitrate that can run off farmland into streams and rivers. Algal blooms all over the world have resulted from an excess of the pollutant, which also kills aquatic life. Now, a first-of-kind-study shows that much of that nitrate gets into rock layers underneath the soil and will eventually seep into aquifers that connect with rivers and streams.

Rock layers are acting as pollution reservoirs that leak, and the pollution may affect water quality for decades even after the use of fertilizers is curtailed. Utilities, and ultimately their customers will have to spend more money to clean water supplies. The report shows that most of the nitrate problem is in North America, Europe, and China. The BBC calls the problem "a ticking time bomb."

UN Warns About Mine Waste for Downstream Communities

A new UN report concludes that better protections are needed for communities downstream of mining sites storing massive amounts of polluted waste. The United Nations Environmental Program pointed to 40 major mine waste accidents in the past decade including the Gold King spill in Colorado, that contaminated waters of several rivers. In the U.S. the EPA had proposed new rules that would require companies to have the financial ability to clean up pollution from closed mines, but Scott Pruitt the new EPA administrator has put them on hold.

Keystone Pipeline Spill Worries Some That It’s Worse than What TransCanada Is Saying

On Thursday, TransCanada, had to shut down its Keystone Pipeline after 210,000 gallons of tar sands oil leaked into South Dakota farmland. The leaking pipeline is not the Keystone XL, which the Obama Administration had disapproved, but the Trump Administration later allowed. Instead the spill was from an older operating pipeline. The leak was detected by the company because of a drop in pressure. A landowner near the spill told Vice News that he’s concerned the spill could be much larger than what the company is reporting because computers used to detect leaks from drops in pressure don’t always sense small leaks. He fears the spill could be 3 times what the company is saying. An earlier Keystone spill in 2016 was first estimated to be about 200 gallons but ended up being almost 17,000 after TransCanada dug up soil where the spill occurred.

The Nebraska Sierra club said that a spill of any size presents problems to the soil and water, but the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources said that the spill didn‘t occur at a site used for drinking water; however, the full extent of the spill’s impacts have not yet been determined. On Monday this week, the Nebraska Public Service Commission will vote whether to go forward with the proposed newer Keystone XL pipeline. After Trump’s approval, the Nebraska vote is the only governmental permit left before that pipeline can proceed.

World Toilet Day Highlights Gender Inequality

And finally, November 19th was World Toilet Day. For many of us, it’s easy to take your local loo for granted–close the door, have a seat, do your business, flush, and forget about it. But for more than 2 billion people worldwide this routine is completely out of reach. That’s according to the international non-profit WaterAid, which has just released its annual report, "Out of Order: State of the World’s Toilets 2017."

Among its findings is that Ethiopia is now the world’s worst country for access to a toilet—a staggering 93 percent of people there don’t have household facilities. And in India, over 700 million people are waiting for even basic sanitation making it the country with the most people without toilets. Using data from UNICEF and the World Health Organization, the report reveals that a lack of decent toilets and clean water causes diseases that, on average, claim the lives of almost 800 children every day. That’s one every two minutes.

Lack of access to this basic human right is substantially worse for girls and women. One in three have nowhere decent to go. Not only do they face the indignity of having to relieve themselves in the open, but they’re also put at increased risk of poor health, harassment and even attack. Girls are more likely to miss classes while on their periods and female workers often stay home when menstruating. This increases the gender gap by trapping women in a cycle of poverty where they find it difficult to get an education, or work to support their families.

There has been some improvement. Between 2000 and 2015, the number of people worldwide defecating in the open dropped by 20 percent, however according to WaterAid, change is not happening fast enough to keep up with population growth and the huge number of people moving to cities. WaterAid is calling on governments to acknowledge the importance of sanitation, make the urgent long-term investments needed—and involve women in the conversation.

"Plastic or Paper? No, the Choice Is Between Plastic or Iron." That story and other headlines for the week ending November 12, 2017[ Show/Hide Transcript ]

COP23 Is Underway and Includes an Unofficial Delegation from the One Country Whose Government Threatens to Pull Out

The UN Climate Change Conference, known as COP23, began last week in Bonn, Germany with the United States being represented by an unofficial group set up under a giant inflatable dome. The U.S. representatives are unofficial because the Trump Administration has threatened to pull out of the Paris Accord. The alternative delegation is represented by 20 U.S. states, 50 of the country’s largest cities, and 60 of the biggest U.S. businesses. As The Guardian reports, all of them have joined together to pledge to combat global warming.

The conference delegates are facing an extremely serious problem: current projections are that greenhouse gas emissions will exceed the Paris Agreement targets, which scientists say will have catastrophic results. According to James Hansen, who spoke to Deutsch Welle, the problem is that there is no substantial reduction in the use of fossil fuels. Hansen is the former top climate scientist at NASA. He pointed out the irony that the Bonn conference is situated 50 kilometers from the largest coal mine in Europe, and that Germany still has 70 coal fired power plants. The Trump Administration has scheduled a meeting at COP23 focusing in part on the future of coal featuring a spokesman from Peabody Coal to be moderated by Vice President Mike Pence. The conference continues until November 17.

There’s a Major Fight Going on over the Types of Pipes to Replace Old Infrastructure

Aging water mains and sewer lines across the U.S. will have to be replaced soon, and some estimate the cost just for drinking water systems to be at least 300 billion dollars, and maybe as high as 1 trillion over the next 20 years, according to the American Water Works Association. The New York Times reports there is a major fight going on below the surface of this issue over the type of pipes to use in replacing old infrastructure. The dispute revolves around whether to use iron or plastic pipes when upgrading systems that deliver drinking water to homes, and take sewage to treatment plants. Many municipal officials are facing this choice or will do so soon as some pipes in the U.S. are over 100 years old.

The choice between iron and plastic is not free from politics. The conservative action group called ALEC, the American Legislative Exchange Council, is actively involved in getting city councils to consider plastics. It is funded by the Koch brothers who have made their billions in part from the petrochemical industry. Generally, plastic pipes are less expensive than iron or copper. While Flint, Michigan, is using copper, neighboring Burton saved more than 2 million dollars by using plastic.

However, the Times explains that the jury is out on the safety of plastic pipes. Andrew Whelton, of Purdue University said that plastics are being installed without any real understanding of their effect on drinking water. There is no federal oversight of the materials and the processes used in making plastic pipes; instead, the industry monitors itself. Scientists are just beginning to understand what can leach into water from underground plastic pipes. In the interest of disclosure: American Water Works Association is an underwriter of H2O Radio.

In Rural American the Types of Pipes to Use in Water Infrastructure Is Secondary

In rural America, whether to choose iron or plastic is secondary to the question of where to get the money for replacement and repair of water systems. Small communities of fewer than 10,000 people find it very difficult to fund infrastructure projects. For some years the U.S. government has helped through its Rural Utilities Service, providing loans and grants of almost 14 billion dollars in the last 8 years benefiting almost 20 million people. However, according to the Center for Investigative Reporting the Trump Administration now wants to eliminate that program entirely. The Obama Administration’s last yearly budget provided about 500 million dollars, but Trump wants to cut it to zero. The justification for eliminating the program is that the small communities should be able to get private financing from say, banks. But thousands of small communities do not have enough cash flow, or a large enough customer base to assure a private lender that a loan would be paid back, according to the Natural Resources Defense Counsel. The government loans under the Rural Utilities Service have been extremely successful, with very low delinquency rates.

A Large Amount of Cocoa in Our Favorite Candy Has Been Grown Illegally—Ghana and Ivory Coast Are Struggling to Stop It

About 60 percent of the supply of the world’s cocoa comes from West African nations, including Ivory Coast and Ghana. Recently, a report from an environmental organization, Mighty Earth, found that a large amount of cocoa, that ends up in chocolate products made by Mars, Nestlé, Hershey’s, Godiva, and others has been grown illegally in protected areas. The Guardian reports that significant areas of rainforest have been cut down and converted to cocoa monoculture. Local officials were bribed or paid kickbacks to allow the crop in protected areas.

Both Ivory Coast and Ghana have announced they are taking steps to stop the deforestation. But, their efforts need to be supported by money and sincere efforts both from chocolate manufacturers and from food giant Cargill, which is the major cocoa broker. Deforestation has devastating effects on wildlife, and indigenous peoples. It has also been shown to significantly reduce rainfall according to a study published in the journal Nature.

Drinking Water at Lunchtime Could Lead to Lower Rates of Kids Obesity

Serving water with school lunches could make kids less likely to become obese, a new study finds. According to a statement from the University of Illinois, when water dispensers were placed in New York City school cafeterias, students’ consumption of water at lunchtime tripled and was associated with small but significant declines in their risks of being overweight one year later. The research was done by Dr. Ruepeng An, who projected that encouraging children to drink water at lunch could prevent more than half a million kids from becoming overweight or obese. Rates of childhood obesity has more than tripled since the 1970s, and today one in five school children is obese. Dr. An said that while there might potentially be some problems if children consume less whole milk, those are probably minor in comparison with the costs associated with skyrocketing childhood obesity.

"Unimpeded by Trump, the U.S. Government Issues Dire Warnings About Climate Change." That story and other headlines for the week ending November 5, 2017[ Show/Hide Transcript ]

The Most Comprehensive Climate Assessment that Exists Today Warns of Unpredictable Tipping Points

The federal government released the fourth national climate assessment last week, and according to one scientist, it’s the most comprehensive report in the world right now. Among the assessment’s main conclusions are the following:

• We are living in the warmest period in modern civilization;
• The climate change that has occurred in the last century is unique—there is no comparable period in the last 50 million years.
• The excessive warming is due to human activity;
• And without swift and dramatic action to curb greenhouse emissions, the average global temperatures could rise 5 degrees Celsius above preindustrial levels by the end of the century.

That is far higher than the 2 degrees Celsius that the global scientific community considers extremely dangerous. The report was authored by scientists in 13 U.S. agencies in addition to some from outside. There had been worries that the Trump Administration would interfere with the report’s conclusions, but according to a NOAA official, who spoke to The Washington Post, that did not happen with the scientific points. The report says that there is no convincing alternative explanation other than human activity for the warming that has occurred over the last century.

Perhaps the most concerning part of the report warns that we may be pushing the earth toward unanticipated surprises or tipping points, and the risk of them becomes greater the faster the Earth is warmed. As Mashable reports, those tipping points could reshape the planet as we know it and do it fast.

Last Monday before the Climate Assessment was released, the World Meteorological Organization said that the concentration of carbon dioxide in Earth’s atmosphere last year was higher than at any point in more than 800,000 years, thanks to humans and a recent strong El Niño.

A Three-Drought In Cape Town, South Africa, Leads to Severe Water Restrictions

Cape Town, South Africa is experiencing its third year of drought, and the metro area of almost 4 million is preparing for severe water rationing. The city has a climate similar to Los Angeles with a wet winter followed by a dry summer, according to the news site Earther.

The area usually gets about 20 inches of rain but this past winter it's experiencing a deficit of about a foot. It's the driest year ever since records were started in the late 1970s. All water users have been told to expect rationing that could lead to cut offs during peak times in the mornings and evenings if usage is above required levels.

The Premier of the Western Cape Province is urging residents to conserve by restricting water use to about 23 gallons a day, meaning:

• No more than 2-minute showers,
• Only 2 liters of drinking water,
• Only three toilet flushes per day.

While the scientific community has not attributed the drought directly to climate change, the South African Weather Service recently reported that Cape Town and much of the country are expected to dry out as the climate warms.

More Threats to the Colorado River Basin

The Colorado River is threatened not just from global warming that may reduce its flows, but also from contaminants, including uranium and mussels. Last week U.S. Forest Service released a report that recommends reversing a ban on uranium mining in areas around the Grand Canyon that some say could pollute the river threatening the water supply downstream for 25 million people. The recommendation would reverse a 20-year moratorium imposed in 2012 by the Obama Administration to protect 1 million acres surrounding Grand Canyon National Park.

Conservationists are criticizing the recommendation to open the area to mining. Amber Reimondo, of the Grand Canyon Trust told the Phoenix New Times that, because uranium contamination of groundwater can happen in a variety of ways, people are vulnerable. The Center for Biological Diversity says that past uranium mining in the region has polluted soils, watersheds, aquifers and drinking water. The proposal to allow more uranium mining is not yet finalized, but follows Trump’s executive order to eliminate restrictions on energy development.

Invasive Mussels Also Threaten the Colorado River Basin and Others

Another threat to the Colorado River are mussels, small mollusks, that have already invaded Lake Powell above the Glen Canyon Dam. The governors of 19 Western states are asking the federal government to prevent the spread of invasive quagga and zebra mussels through federally managed waterways.

The mussels are prolific. They layer by the hundreds onto buoys, docks and boats requiring hot water under much pressure to remove them. They cling to boat engines and are transported from one reservoir to another. They can impede a dam’s water flow costing millions of dollars to control. The Arizona Daily Sun reports that thousands of mussels are plastered on the walls of Glen Canyon Dam, disrupting the flow of water that provides hydroelectricity to several states including Wyoming, Colorado, and Nebraska.

The mussels feed themselves by extracting nutrients from water. A single critter can filter up to a liter of water a day removing oxygen and food for other animals. Besides the Colorado River, the western governors are also concerned about the mussels reaching the Columbia River Basin and Lake Tahoe.

Why Are Parisians So Bubbly?

And, finally this week, if you hear the words Paris and carbon, your first thought might be the historic climate agreement reached by nearly 200 countries to reduce greenhouse gases. But there’s another reason to pair the city of light with CO2: Sparkling water! The Parisian government just unveiled a new initiative to install drinking fountains that dispense carbonated water. Eight of the fontaine pétillante, as they're called have already been around since 2010, but this new plan would put one in each of the city’s 20 arrondissements, or neighborhoods.

The fountains use city tap water with a carbonator just before the spigot and they were installed initially as a way to encourage French people to stay hydrated. But the feedback officials received was that Parisians would drink more tap water if it were bubbly. Of course, they wanted to keep the locals healthy and happy, but there was another reason for the move. According to Lonely Planet, on average, each French person drinks 40 gallons of bottled water every year and officials saw an opportunity to address a growing amount of plastic waste.

So now we have another reason plan a trip to the world's most effervescent city.

"It’s Not Just Climate Change, It’s Ocean Change." That story and other headlines for the week ending October 29, 2017[ Show/Hide Transcript ]

Forecast: The First Freeze Falls Later and Fewer Forecasters Will Be Around to Foretell It

Does it seem like the first freeze in your area is coming later each year? According to NOAA it’s not your imagination. Temperatures from 700 weather stations analyzed by NOAA and the Associated Press show that over the last ten years the average first freeze is a week later than it was in in the 1970s.

The length of the freeze season last year was a full month shorter than it was in 1916. In Oregon, it was a remarkable two months shorter than normal. The freeze season isn’t the only thing shrinking, the agency we count on to predict our weather is itself facing cutbacks, according to the labor union that represents its staff.

The National Weather Service has about 700 vacancies, the union said. Not all the current unfilled positions are due to the Trump administration. The Government Accountability Office reported that vacancies increased nearly 60 % from 2014 to 2016. However, Trump’s budget would slash the National Weather Service 6 percent, and NOAA’s 16 percent overall.

Acidity In the Ocean Has Increased by More Than 25 Percent Since the Industrial Revolution, Affecting Sea Life

Ocean acidification—the result of the seas absorbing carbon dioxide—is affecting all sea life. That is the conclusion of an 8-year study by more than 250 scientists. For example, the scientists found that by the end of this century an Atlantic cod could be reduced to a quarter its current size, and the number of baby cod that could make it to adulthood might drop to as low as 10 percent of what it is today.

The acidity in the oceans has increased by more than 25 percent since the Industrial Revolution. Steps taken now to cut back carbon releases into the atmosphere can help the situation, but the amount already in the air will continue the process. Peter Thomson, the UN Ambassador for the oceans told The Guardian that while most are aware of climate change, there is a need to talk more about "ocean change" and the effects of acidification, warming, plastic pollution, dead zones and other threats.

Next month governments will meet in Bonn to discuss further steps to implement the Paris accord, and researchers in this study are hoping the acidification problem will be addressed.

Nicaragua Joins Paris Climate Accord, Leaving Only U.S. and Syria Opposed

And speaking of the Paris agreement, when nearly 200 countries signed on to it in 2015 there were only two holdouts—Nicaragua and Syria. That is until June when Trump announced he was pulling the U.S. out of the accord. Nicaragua had declined to enter the Paris agreement because it did not go far enough to avert a 3-degree-Celsius rise in global temperature, according to the country’s chief negotiator who spoke with Democracy Now!. But, last week Nicaragua did an about face. Daniel Ortega, Nicaragua’s president and his wife, Rosario Murillo, the vice president said they were joining the accord in the face of increasing natural disasters.

Nurses’ Journal Publishes Special Climate Change Edition

In other news related to addressing climate change, an international journal of nursing published a special edition devoted entirely to how global warming is worsening threats to human health. According to Inside Climate News, The Journal of Nursing Scholarship published 11 studies detailing how climate change is worsening infectious and chronic disease, mental health, food security, disaster planning and social disparities. They also discuss how the nursing profession can address these emerging challenges.

Republicans Move to Open Gulf of Mexico and Alaska to Oil and Gas Development

On Tuesday Interior Secretary Ryan Zinke announced that the U.S. government would hold the largest sale ever of rights to drill involving almost 80 million acres in the Gulf of Mexico. The announcement triggered memories of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill disaster in 2010 that killed 11 and spewed 4 million barrels into the Gulf. Spills continue: Axios reports that just two weeks ago, an oil pipeline leaked about 16,000 barrels into the Gulf not far from the Horizon disaster.

President Obama had also included parts of the Gulf in his offshore drilling plan about a year ago, but areas in Alaska were off limits. Now, Republicans in the Senate are moving to open the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge to drilling. The area of about 19 million acres is home to polar bears, caribou, moose, and hundreds of migratory bird species. In a statement, Jamie Williams of The Wilderness Society said that the refuge is too fragile and special to drill, and that we have a moral obligation to protect it for future generations.

The Trump administration is also planning to open even more areas of Alaska to oil and gas development through an auction in December which will include more than 10 million acres to the west of the wildlife refuge.

Media Matters: Californians Conserved Water Because They Were Well Informed

During the height of the recent 5-year drought in California, water use dropped statewide on average 25 percent. And although consumption has ticked up slightly, people in the Golden State are still conserving. According to a recent Stanford study, a big driver of that conservation is being better informed. In an analysis of the San Francisco Bay Area researchers found that the more that major newspapers wrote about the drought, the more people cut back on their water use.

In fact, the report notes people conserved even before they were forced to when Governor Jerry Brown issued his mandatory restrictions in April 2015. The researchers determined this by comparing water use and news reporting during two recent California droughts. The first drought occurred from 2007 to 2009. By February 2009, things were so serious that then-Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger declared a statewide drought emergency. But newspapers were focused on other big stories, namely the election of Barack Obama and the Great Recession of 2008, so water use barely budged.

But the second drought that began in 2011 was historic, the driest four-year stretch in state’s recorded history—and it was the news. The more papers covered it, the more people searched for it on Google, the more residential water use fell. How much? For every 100 drought-related articles published over a two-month period, the report found that residential water use fell by 11 to 18 percent. The study’s author, hydrologist Newsha Ajami, said that people do care if you give them the right set of information—they react, they respond, and they change their behavior.

"We're All Exposed and We're All at Risk." That story and other headlines for the week ending October 22, 2017[ Show/Hide Transcript ]

Pollution Needs Be Addressed as a World Health Problem

Air, water, and soil pollution are killing more people in the world each year than all wars and violence. A new study published in the The Lancet, a British medical journal, shows that about 9 million people died prematurely from exposure to toxic chemicals in 2015. The study is the first effort ever to determine the number of deaths from all forms of pollution. The morbidity rate may be even higher because some places on earth are not monitoring pollution, and some potential toxins are being ignored.

The report notes that of the 5,000 new chemicals that have been dispersed over the planet since 1950, less than half have been tested for toxicity. In other words, there may be deaths caused by pollutants that we do not yet know about. While all people are exposed, the authors note that the effects of pollutants are seen most in the young and the poor.

Some startling statistics: the number of people killed by pollution each year is 1 and half times greater than those killed by smoking; 3 times the number of those killed by tuberculosis, AIDS and malaria combined; and 15 times more than the number of humans killed by wars and violence.

The largest category of deadly pollutants is air contamination from factories and vehicles, but hazards are also found in water supplies that lead to infectious diseases. The report which took two-years and involved more than 40 international researchers, concludes that much of the world’s pollution can be controlled and related diseases prevented. But it will take leadership, resources and clear strategies. So, it’s timely that in December, the U.N. Environment Assembly will take place in Kenya, and its title this year: “Towards a Pollution Free Planet.” Participants will, among other things, outline realistic steps to address pollution to protect human health.

27-year Study Confirms Remarkable Decline of Insects

If you like to eat nutritious fruits and vegetables you should thank an insect. And, if you like to eat fish like salmon you should thank a fly. Those were the sentiments expressed by Scott Black, executive director of an environmental group, known as The Xerces Society, in the wake of a study showing a massive decrease in flying insects in nature reserves in western Germany. Researchers who have been collecting the critters for 27 years have shown a remarkable decline of nearly 80 percent. They measured the overall weight of the bugs, and not the number or diversity of different species.

The results of the study were published last week in the journal PLOS One, but they have not yet determined what caused the decline. The researchers found no evidence that it was caused by climate change, habitat loss, pesticides or pollutants. And so far, puzzled researchers have not found a corresponding decline in insect eating birds or plants that depend on the bugs for pollination. More research will be needed, but one scientist noted that unfortunately, there are no studies showing that insects are doing well.

Proposed Pipeline Will Cross Hundreds of Rivers in Mid-Atlantic States

It may be the pipeline project you’ve never heard of. But for residents of Virginia and North Carolina, the Atlantic Coast Pipeline represents, either an environmental catastrophe or a major economic opportunity. On Friday, the 13th, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission approved a permit for the 600-mile pipeline that could cost 5 billion dollars. It is planned to deliver natural gas by running from West Virginia through Virginia and into eastern North Carolina.

In Virginia, the pipeline will cross about 700 rivers and streams, and in North Carolina, about 320 waterways. A spokesperson for the Sierra Club told the North Carolina Independent Weekly that the pipe will release methane every step of the way. In addition, Hope Taylor, executive Director of Clean Water for North Carolina, told the Staunton News Leader that the pipeline would go through communities that are 60 percent African-American and 95 percent Native American. The pipeline still must be approved by state environmental agencies.

Super Typhoon Hitting Japan May Affect Weather in U.S.

They are calling it a super typhoon—or the equivalent of a Category 4 to 5 hurricane—and it’s is predicted to hit Tokyo, Japan on Monday, October 23rd. Recently Typhoon Lan, as it's called, had sustained winds of up to 150 miles per hour and gusts near 180. And at one point its eye was 50 miles in diameter. As it passes the greater Tokyo area, with its nearly 38 million inhabitants, Lan is expected to weaken, but still be very destructive.

For those in the U.S., Typhoon Lan could affect the Jetstream, and as Mashable reports, after a strong typhoon moves into the northern Pacific, weather systems over North America tend to become more amplified spawning storms and outbreaks of cold air.

NOAA’s Climate Prediction Center Is Out with Its 2017-18 Winter Forecast

PrecipitationOutlook_Winter2017_620 NOAA’s Climate Prediction Center is out with its 2017-18 winter forecast for temperature, precipitation and drought. And, for the second year in a row, La Niña is poised to be a major factor. As far as temperature, they’re forecasting above average temps for the southern two-thirds of the continental U.S. and the east coast, as well as Hawaii and western Alaska. It could be chillier in Washington state and along the Canadian border.

Looking at precipitation, drier conditions are very likely along the entire southern U.S. and the odds are that northern states like Montana and the Dakotas will be wetter than average. Although that sounds like good news for the northern plains, which have been exceptional drought, forecasters say it won’t offer much relief because the ground in winter is often frozen. As for California, the huge snowfall last year might be a distant memory because models indicate it will be less wet and a bit warmer.

TemperatureOutlook_Winter2017_620 (1) That said, while NOAA makes long-term predictions about temperature and precipitation, it doesn’t make any claims about the frequency or severity of actual storms. In a press release they explain that even though the last two winters had above-average temperatures many parts of the country saw significant snowstorms. It’s difficult to predict snow events more than a week in advance because they depend upon the strength and track of winter storms. The Climate Prediction Center will update its forecast in mid-November with news about La Niña, and other weather-making patterns.

"The Link Between Climate Change and California’s Fires." That story and other headlines for the week ending October 15, 2017[ Show/Hide Transcript ]

Scientists Are Suggesting Climate Change Playing Role in Fire Seasons

The death toll from the fires in northern California stood at 40 on Sunday morning. The forecast was for cooler temperatures and less wind which will allow firefighters to battle the flames. On Saturday, strong winds caused fires to spread in the central Napa area and led to more evacuations especially in Sonoma county. As these fires have decimated areas such as Santa Rosa, attention is focusing on climate change.

Scientific American reports that scientists are increasingly suggesting that global warming has played a role in shaping fire seasons in California and other parts of the world. Rising temperatures make vegetation drier, and even an increase in heavy rainfall events may not be enough to counter the arid conditions.

Lightning strikes may become more frequent in a warmer atmosphere. One study has shown that for every degree Celsius that temperature rises, the number of lightning strikes could increase more than 10 percent. A warmer climate also increases the amount of time throughout the year that conditions are primed for wildfires.

Many scientists are saying that winds such as those fanning the California fires may cause more problems in the future. Eric Holthaus of Grist has noted that models predict more intense Santa Ana wind events. But these possibilities are not certain, and the effects of climate change will not b the same everywhere in the world.

Some Puerto Ricans May Have No Choice But to Drink Contaminated Water

The disaster in Puerto Rico since Hurricane Maria struck three weeks ago still affects many. 85 percent of the residents remain without electricity and half cannot make phone calls. Nearly one-third of Puerto Ricans are still without water. CNN reported that officials are pumping water for people to drink from a federally designated Superfund site.

The EPA said that the area has been polluted with industrial chemicals that can have serious health effects including damage to the liver and increasing risks of cancer. One man, when told of about the source of the water, was not startled and said that it was the only option he had. To make the situation worse, about 10 cases of a bacterial infection called Leptospirosis have been reported. The disease is spread through cattle urine, and may have caused 4 deaths.

With regard to the overall recovery of Puerto Rico, the governor said that the goal now is to restore electricity for half of the island by the middle of next month.

Ophelia Heads to Ireland – Strongest Hurricane in Eastern Atlantic this Time of Year

In other news of major storms, hurricane Ophelia, is heading for Ireland and the U.K., and is expected to make landfall Monday, October 16th. However, Ophelia is expected to weaken to what could be called a tropical storm or even a post-tropical cyclone. Still, The Irish Examiner notes that it could be the worst storm to hit Ireland in fifty years. Ophelia has already set a record for the strongest hurricane in the eastern Atlantic so late in the year. As the Business Insider notes, it is not uncommon for strong Atlantic storms to hit Europe although they are more typical in the Caribbean, Gulf Coast and eastern U.S. A recent study concludes that global warming could result in more storms hitting Europe. The high sea surface temperatures can help storms keep a cyclonic structure as they travel there. Others think that the number of storms will go down, but their intensity will increase.

Supreme Court to Hear Two Water Disputes Between States

Disputes between states over water made headlines last week as the U.S. Supreme Court agreed to hear arguments in two cases one between Florida and Georgia, and the other Texas and New Mexico. Florida sued its neighbor, Georgia, about four years ago claiming that residents of Atlanta and farmers in the southeast part of the state were taking too much water out of rivers that flow into Florida’s Apalachicola Bay. Florida claimed that its seafood industry suffered. But a Special Master, a type of judge, appointed by the high court to hear Florida’s complaints ruled that Florida had not proven Georgia was causing it harm.

In the second case, Texas sued New Mexico over what it claims are increasing water use and groundwater pumping below Elephant Butte Reservoir. The Lone Star state says that its neighbor to the west deprives Texas of water apportioned to it under the 1938 Rio Grande Compact. A different special master sided with Texas. And now in both cases the Supreme Court will decide which states will prevail.

Scientists Map Old Faithful’s Plumbing System

And finally, Old Faithful in Yellowstone National Park is one of our nation’s most iconic landmarks. Every hour or so, it shoots steam and hot water over one hundred feet in the air and has done so like clockwork, a phenomenon that was first documented by explorers in 1870.

Scientists have long known that geysers like Old Faithful form when groundwater heated by volcanic rocks reaches a boiling point and then pushes steam bubbles up to the surface through cracks or vents. But the place where the water simmers between eruptions has remained a mystery—until now.

Researchers from the University of Utah have been able to map the plumbing beneath the famous geyser using seismic data to reveal fissures and cracks deep in the earth, in the same way that geologists find earthquake faults. The scientists placed over 100 seismometers around the geyser and were able to outline a reservoir more than 600 feet in diameter and capable of holding nearly 80 million gallons of water. Based on the data they also learned that tremors around the geyser lasted about an hour and only happened after an eruption was over. The tremors were then followed by quiet 30-minute periods when the reservoir refilled.

The researchers plan to return to Old Faithful once the park closes this winter when there are fewer footsteps and vehicles that add noise to their data. They also hope to study how changes in air temperature could potentially affect the geyser’s pattern.

"Can Balloons Reconnect Puerto Rico?" That story and other headlines for the week ending October 8, 2017[ Show/Hide Transcript ]

Hurricane Nate and the Effects of Irma and Maria on Wildlife

On Sunday morning, Nate, the fastest hurricane ever to cross the Gulf of Mexico, struck Mississippi and Alabama after hitting Louisiana. Luckily the storm spared New Orleans, and rapidly weakened as it moved inland. Flooding did occur in parts of Mississippi and Alabama, and there were power outages in some areas. But there seemed to be a collective sigh of relief as Hurricane Nate did not pack the destructive force of siblings Harvey, Irma, and Maria.

While the effects of the storms have been horrific for humans, they have also impacted animals. Irma destroyed more than half of the incubating sea turtle nests in a national wildlife refuge on a barrier island off Florida’s east coast. The area is one of the most important loggerhead and green turtle nesting sites in the world, according to Science Daily.

And researchers are also worried about Monkey Island off the coast of eastern Puerto Rico inhabited by hundreds of resus macaques, and while it appears many survived Hurricane Maria, their food supplies were decimated. Scientists have studied the monkeys on the island since the 1930s when the animals were brought from southeast Asia. Mother Jones reports that researchers are taking food and water to the island in addition to helping residents of Punta Santiago on Puerto Rico where many of the staff for Monkey Island live.

Dioxin Leaking into Houston Waters

it’s only been 6 weeks since Hurricane Harvey stalled over southeast Texas and dumped more than 50 inches of rain in the Houston area. Of course, the effects of the storm are still being felt. Last week the EPA confirmed that one of the most powerful carcinogens, dioxin, has leaked from a Superfund site into the San Jacinto River just east of Houston. The agency found the chemical in samples of river sediment.

The contamination comes from a paper mill operated in the 1960s and is just one of the superfund sites inundated during Harvey. Concentrations of leaked dioxin are 2,000 times higher than the level at which the EPA requires clean up. The fact that the site was vulnerable was made clear way before Harvey. The Houston Chronical reports that three years ago, Samuel Brody, a professor at Texas A & M, said the site was a loaded gun that could cause severe contamination, if hit by a violent storm or hurricane.

Meanwhile, Jackie Young, who grew up near the area and is a founder of a grass-roots organization, told the Chronicle that the scary part of the leak is they have no way of knowing where all the contaminated material was carried by the flood waters.

Scotland Bans Fracking

"Fracking cannot and will not take place in Scotland." Those were the words of Paul Wheelhouse, the country’s energy minister as the government banned the controversial practice last week. The Guardian reports that Wheelhouse said allowing fracking would cause long lasting negative impacts on communities, damaging public health, the environment, and Scotland’s climate goals.

Scotland’s economy depends on natural gas for much of its residential heating and commercial activity; but that was not enough to sway residents whom the government surveyed about the issue through a process called consultation. Almost 100 percent of 65,000 respondents opposed fracking. The Scottish Conservatives said that the decision would discourage much needed economic investment. The government’s ban will be put to vote in the Scottish parliament later this year and is expectedly to pass easily.

Radioactive Material Found in Groundwater 60 Miles from Fukushima

On Friday, two earthquakes struck Japan in the same area as the Fukushima nuclear plant that was destroyed in 2011. No injuries have been reported and no tsunami occurred, but the danger of earthquakes and their lasting effect on nearby nuclear power plants was highlighted by a recent paper published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The research shows that groundwater underneath beaches 60 miles away is highly contaminated from the 2011 disaster.

As reported in Science News, the authors of the study theorize that seawater tainted with the radioactive material traveled along coastal waters and lapped against the beaches. The radioactive material stuck to the sand and likely percolated down. Now it is making its way back into the ocean. The research notes that the contaminated groundwater is not currently a public health threat. But about 200 of the world’s 440 nuclear power plants are located along coastlines and as Newsweek reports, if a similar incident happens again, it may not be as benign.

This project is anything but "loony" and could restore some normalcy to Puerto Rico

And finally, when Hurricane Maria hit Puerto Rico last month, it not only destroyed access to food and running water, it made communicating about those needs difficult. The FCC said as of last Friday that more than 80 percent of Puerto Rico's cell towers were still down and only 11 percent of residents had power. Companies like Google and Tesla are responding to the crisis. Google’s parent company Alphabet, was granted an emergency experimental FCC license for its "Project Loon" to use solar-powered, high-altitude balloons in the hopes of providing mobile phone service. The balloons are about the size of a tennis court when inflated and carry the equivalent of a cell-tower communications package. Although the technology is still new it had some success in bringing Wi-Fi to Peru when serious floods hit last January.

How soon they will be operational is still unknown. A company spokesperson said they’re working with the island’s telecommunications provider to integrate the technology. Still, if they got cell service, how would people charge their devices? With solar panels if Tesla’s Elon Musk has a say in it—and apparently he does. He and Puerto Rico’s governor Ricardo Rosselló had a 25-minute phone call Friday night where they discussed relief efforts with Tesla playing a leading role.

Hundreds of Tesla Powerwall battery systems are already in Puerto Rico and the company's employees are in the country helping with installation and training. Energy analysts say solar panels linked together in a grid would generate their own power, be less vulnerable to storms and reduce energy bills. In an interview with USA Today Rosselló said he always has been interested in renewable energy. He said bringing solar power to the island would be a silver lining of the disaster.

"The Colorado River Sues...Colorado." That story and other headlines for the week ending October 1, 2017[ Show/Hide Transcript ]

Water Quality in Puerto Rico Was an Issue Before Maria

Recovery operations in Puerto Rico are still running into significant gridlock as of October 1st. The Hill reports that problems persist in moving items such as food, water, medicine, and other critical materials out of the port in San Juan. People are having to spend up to an entire day just to obtain one necessity like food or fuel. About 20 miles from the capital locals lined up to fill containers near a PVC pipe that trickles water from a hillside spring, according to USA Today.

Even before the hurricane, however, clean drinking water in Puerto Rico was a major problem. In May, the National Resources Defense Council issued a report concluding that the island suffered the worst rate of drinking water violations of any state or territory in the nation. Nearly 70 percent of the water systems had high levels of contaminants including volatile organic compounds.

Now, people are worried that winds and lashing rains from the hurricane may have washed toxins into waterways from coal ash dumps. Puerto Rico has obtained most of its electricity from fossil fuels including coal. Grist reports that the island has 40 toxic dumps of ash from burning coal to generate power. These open-air dumps contain lead, arsenic and other chemicals that can contaminate sources of drinking water.

If there is any silver lining to this immense disaster, it may be that Puerto Rico could rebuild its water and power generation infrastructure on sustainable and renewable sources.

Can the Colorado River Stand Up in Court?

Environmental laws are failing to protect the environment–that’s what some people in Colorado are saying, and they want to change that by treating ecosystems the same way as corporations. Last week a lawsuit was filed in Denver claiming that the Colorado River should be accorded the status of a person with rights to exist and to thrive independent of human ownership or use.

The Boulder Weekly reports the suit is being brought in the name of the river against the State of Colorado, but because the river cannot speak, members of Deep Green Resistance, an environmental activist group, are listed as guardians or next friends, acting on the river’s behalf.

The notion that a river has rights of its own may be new in the U.S., but not in other countries. Last week in Australia, the legislature in Victoria passed the Yarra River Protection Act that treats the river as one integrated, living, natural entity. And in India both the Ganges and Yamuna Rivers have legal status. Officials with the State of Colorado have not yet responded to the suit, but those opposed to the rights of nature approach say that it would unravel the current water rights system that has existed for 150 years.

Evaporation: A Potential New Renewable Energy Source

Imagine that 70 percent of the U.S. demand for electricity being met by a source that’s non-polluting and works whether the sun is shining or the wind is blowing. A new technology based upon water evaporation could make that a reality, according to a team from Columbia University. They’ve developed an evaporation engine which works by using muscle-like bands that expand and contract with tiny changes in humidity. As the bands get wetter they grow, then shrink as they dry. The energy from the expansion and contraction has been shown to power a lightbulb or move a model car.

As reported in Quartz, the scientists have calculated the average rate of evaporation from inland waterways in the U.S. and have projected that it could be a massive source of renewable energy.

Japanese Species Raft Across Pacific Ocean After Tsunami

Scientists are in awe, and a bit fearful as a new study shows that after the 2011 tsunami in Japan, nearly 300 species of marine life crossed the Pacific Ocean and arrived on the west coast from Alaska to California. The BBC reports that creatures such as mussels, starfish, and many other invertebrates rafted across the ocean often on pieces of plastic debris.

The tsunami washed things like coolers, fishing boats and even docks into the sea and with the living creatures attached they made a journey of over six thousand miles. The research says that the presence of plastic, fiber glass and other materials that do not decompose made the rafting possible for the animals. But while the journey of these marine hitchhikers is remarkable, it also raises concerns about the risk of invasive species. As storms become more intense due to climate change, that threat is larger than it’s ever been.

Coffee: Good, Bad, and Both

And finally, last Friday was "International Coffee Day" and many chains were offering free cups of Joe to celebrate, because we Americans, we love our java. According to market research firm Euromonitor, Americans drink more coffee than soda, tea, and juice combined. But is coffee good for you? That answer seems to change as fast as you can say grande half caf soy no foam latte. And in fact, there were two stories out this week that complicate whether we should drink up...or worry.

First the good news: A new study of people who drank a minimum of four cups a day had a higher chance of living longer compared to folks who rarely drank the stuff, and in case you’re wondering, it didn’t matter if the coffee was full strength or decaffeinated. This new finding supports previous researches that showed coffee could also reduce the risk of many conditions including type 2 diabetes, liver disease, colorectal cancer, and Alzheimer’s.

Now that bad news. According to the Associated Press, a lawsuit filed in 2010 by the Council for Education and Research on Toxics resumed this week in Los Angeles. Its primary complaint is that coffee retailers such as Starbucks, Dunkin' Donuts, Seattle's Best, Whole Foods, and several convenience stores violated the California Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act, also known as Proposition 65. That law requires them to post warnings about chemicals known to cause cancer or that have reproductive toxicity.

The compound at issue is the carcinogen acrylamide that forms in some foods when they're cooked at high temperatures by frying, roasting or baking. We're talking things ranging from French fries to dark toast—and of course coffee. The industry has acknowledged the presence of acrylamide but asserts it is at harmless levels which are outweighed by coffee's benefits.

The outcome of the suit that's been brewing for years could determine if there's a wakeup call about to hit the coffee industry.

"The Mayor of San Juan Pleads, 'Don’t Forget Us.'" That story and other headlines for the week ending September 24, 2017[ Show/Hide Transcript ]

Humanitarian Crisis Begins to Unfold After Hurricane Maria’s Devastation

Hurricane Maria hit parts of the Caribbean last week leaving the area devastated including the island nation of Dominica, and U.S. territories of Puerto Rico and St. Croix. It was the biggest storm to hit Puerto Rico in 80 years. Both Puerto Rico and St. Croix had been relatively spared by Hurricane Irma; but Maria was not as forgiving. Rescue and recovery could take months and returning to normal up to a year. On Saturday, the island’s main port opened according to the Associated Press, allowing 11 ships to dock loaded with food, water, generators and cots.

But the humanitarian crisis is growing. Brian Perry, a medical relief worker in San Juan helping to get hospitals up and functioning spoke with H2O Radio via Skype on Saturday night.

Brian Perry: Healthcare is definitely going to become more of an issue as time goes on and resources get stretched. And, whether hospitals are able to open back up and become functional. Because a lot of them, their roofs blew off and water just started pouring down through all the floors of some of these hospitals. And once you get water going from floor to floor you get mold immediately.

Perry said that situation can lead to respiratory problems, and sick people can’t be in hospitals with mold.

Another problem is the huge amount of standing water.

Perry: The mosquitoes that were here last week were all blown away by the hurricane but within a week or two the mosquitoes are going to be just incredible with all the standing water and inability to control them.

According to the Washington Post, on Saturday the mayors of 50 cities and towns met in San Juan and pleaded with the governor for the things they need the most: water, drugs, gasoline, satellite phones and oxygen tanks.

San Juan Mayor Carmen Yulín Cruz told the paper, that she would ask not only for Puerto Rico, but for the whole Caribbean: Do not forget us and do not let us feel alone.

Pacific Not Spared from Cyclones

Before Maria ravaged the Caribbean, two typhoons struck Vietnam, the Philippines, and Japan. Typhoon Talim hit Japan killing at least two and injuring 40. 640,000 people had been evacuated in areas of Japan before the storm hit.

And another Typhoon, made a direct hit on Vietnam. It was the most powerful storm to hit the nation of 93 million in 10 years. It caused widespread damage to farmlands, homes, roads and electrical facilities. Nine people were killed, but it would have been much worse if the mandatory evacuations orders had not been followed.

Devastation from Earthquake in Mexico City May Be Amplified by Ancient Lakebed

When we consider the horrible devastation of the earthquake that struck Mexico City last week, we don’t usually think of water or lakes—but we certainly could. The 7.1-magnitude earthquake that killed hundreds, occurred coincidentally on the same exact day that an even more devastating quake hit in 1985. The recent quake has drawn attention to the geology of Mexico City. It sits on top of an ancient lake bed surrounded by hills that make it similar to a bowl filled with Jell-O. How this came to be has a deep history. In the 14th century the Aztecs built the city of Tenochtitlan on an island in the middle of a lake. It was an important religious center, and they kept the lake from flooding the city by using a system of dikes, levees, and canals.

About two hundred years later, Hernán Cortéz, the Spanish Conquistador conquered the city and eventually the Aztec empire. Instead of using the Aztec water improvements, the Spaniards decided to drain the lake.

Mexico City has extracted water from underground more than twice as fast as it is replenished, leaving a spongy clay. When a quake strikes, the vibrations are trapped in the bowl which can strengthen them. It’s almost like a bathtub, Susan Hough of the USGS, told the Smithsonian, with underground waves sloshing back and forth. When an earthquake strikes near Mexico City, like last week’s, it is actually amplified by the ancient sediments that underlie the city. It wasn’t until the quake of 1985 that scientists discovered the reverberations under Mexico City were 5 times greater than the waves outside.

New Study About Flint Water Crisis Reveals Additional Repercussions

After Flint, Michigan’s water source was switched from the Detroit system to the Flint River, lead contamination resulted in a human catastrophe. Now, the extent of that crisis is even more serious. The lead pollution resulted in fewer babies being born, and more fetuses dying. A new study by researchers at Kansas University and West Virginia University shows that the fertility rate of Flint women dropped 12 percent and the fetal death rate increased almost 60 percent after officials switched the source of the city’s water.

The researchers also found that birth weights of live babies were on average about 5 percent lower compared with other Michigan children. The Detroit Free Press reports that according to federal health officials lead can damage a developing baby’s nervous system causing miscarriages and still births, as well as infertility in men and women. Criminal cases are proceeding against fifteen state and local officials for their conduct during Flint water crisis.

Gatorade Settles with California over Misleading App

And finally, if you’re a rising track star, your dream would be to run as fast as Olympian Usain Bolt. So what’s his secret to lightning speed? Gatorade. Or so the company would have you think. In their free mobile app called "Bolt!," players help "refuel" a cartoon version of the famed gold-medalist as he runs a long, difficult race. The sprinter picks up speed when he hits Gatorade icons but slows down when he runs into water droplets. Players are encouraged to "keep your performance high and avoid water."

That statement got the company in hot water with California Attorney General Xavier Becerra who accused the popular beverage maker of false advertising that could lead children to make bad nutritional choices. Becerra said in his complaint "that making misleading statements is a violation of California law. But making misleading statements aimed at our children is beyond unlawful, it's morally wrong and a betrayal of trust." In keeping with the speed of the fastest human on earth Gatorade quickly pulled the game and rapidly reached a settlement without admitting wrongdoing. It also agreed to pay $300,000 and promised to stop badmouthing water.

"Environmentalists Score a Big Win." That story and other headlines for the week ending September 17, 2017[ Show/Hide Transcript ]

Houston Pollution Being Tested by Environmental Groups and NYT

After Hurricane Harvey dumped more than 50 inches of rain in the Houston area, people were concerned about the pollutants in flood waters. Reporters from The New York Times were curious too, but neither the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality nor the EPA would provide any information as to what they were testing or what they found. So, the Times took on this task itself by asking the Baylor College of Medicine to put together a team to test flood waters as people started to return to their homes.

The testing done on September 5th, revealed that E. coli levels, usually from fecal contamination were 135 times higher than what’s considered safe. They also detected lead, other metals, and even liquid mercury beads–which are very dangerous.

People were also worried about what they smelled in the air especially near a Valero Energy refinery. The Texas Tribune reports that the EPA took measurements over several days but has not released any specific information, saying simply that concentrations of chemicals in the air, such as benzene, met Texas health guidelines. Environmental groups took on the task of testing and informing the public about the specific levels of pollutants. The results show that in numerous locations benzene levels far exceeded what would be acceptable in California, but were under the much less stringent Texas standards. Pollution experts said that by the time the EPA started its sampling much of the benzene would have dissipated.

However, last week the EPA demanded that Valero turn over records related to the release of benzene and other compounds. The agency also announced on Thursday that Valero significantly underestimated the amounts of chemicals that had been released during the hurricane.

U.S.-Mexico Agreement Near on Colorado River Basin

"This is important to both countries." That’s what a California state official said about the proposed agreement between Mexico and the U.S. that will hopefully head off severe water shortages along the Colorado River basin. The agreement dubbed Minute No. 323 to the 1944 Mexican Water Treaty will extend provisions that reduce deliveries during shortages and increases them in wet periods.

The Desert Sun reports that Mexico will continue to store water in Lake Mead near Las Vegas which is intended to keep the level high enough to avoid triggering dramatic cut backs. The present agreement is set to expire at the end of this year, and the new one still needs the approval of various U.S. and state authorities; nevertheless, a signing ceremony has been scheduled at the end of the month both in Juarez, Mexico and Santa Fe, New Mexico.

Major Victory for Environmental Groups Suing to Block Federal Coal Leases

Environmentalists won a major victory this past week when an appellate court decided that the federal government must consider the effects of climate change when permitting land for coal mining. In the past, the government has argued that coal leasing on federal lands will not affect climate change, because the coal could simply be mined elsewhere. But, the Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals wasn’t persuaded and told a lower court to seek more analysis from the Bureau of Land Management which permits the leases.

Jeremy Nichols with WildEarth Guardians told the Associated Press, that the decision is big, and they will be using it to confront other mining approvals. His organization and the Sierra Club had sued to block leases at the two biggest mines in the U.S. both in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming.

In the meantime, mining will continue at three of the contested leases the BLM granted to Peabody Energy and Arch Coal.

Chiapas Faces Water Problem Some Say Caused by Coca-Cola Bottler

Even before a major earthquake struck Chiapas in southern Mexico about a week ago, another problem was plaguing some local townspeople—their water was disappearing. Truthout reports that in thousands of towns across Mexico, corporate water consumption is taking precedence over local needs.

Juan Urbano, a former local government official in Chiapas said that to get water some people have to walk two hours a day, and others are forced to buy it. Some are placing the blame on a Coca-Cola bottling plant that consumed over 1 million liters of water from wells per day in 2016. Communities near the Coca-Cola plant are suffering water shortages. But, there are no shortages for the Coke plant which now has two wells. Antonino García, of Chapingo University, sees a direct link between the deep wells of the bottling plant, and the disappearing water for locals. Earlier this year, a United Nations representative said that there is sufficient evidence that Mexico is violating peoples’ rights to water and sanitation in Chiapas.

There Might Really Be an "Octopus Garden"

And finally, octopuses are solitary creatures, thought to be loners who socialized only to mate and otherwise spend time in their rocky dens with a "Do Not Disturb" sign out front. Or so scientists thought until they discovered "Octopolis" off the eastern coast of Australia, where researchers observed 16 octopuses living together around a manmade, heavily encrusted metal object. Interesting as it was, it was considered an anomaly.

But research out this month in the journal Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology documents another encampment just a few hundred meters away from Octopolis. Dubbed "Octlantis" it has 23 dens on three patches of rocks, each surrounded by mounds of shells along with a collection of fishing lures and beer bottles. There in this octopus’s garden, the creatures live in perfect harmony.


Octopuses are known to fight constantly, and Octlantis is no exception with the scientists observing the octopuses evicting each other out of homes, and acting aggressively by elongating their bodies and changing color. But that said they are hanging out together which the researchers find intriguing and a bit confounding. More study will be needed, but lead author David Scheel of Alaska Pacific University told Quartz he thinks it might be a generational thing and that future offspring might evolve to be more willing to share space.

Or something we might call, an "occ-upy" movement.

"As Irma Hits Florida, Worries Rise in Houston." That story and other headlines for the week ending September 10, 2017[ Show/Hide Transcript ]

Irma Devastates the Caribbean and Heads into Florida

As we begin our report this Sunday, Hurricane Irma is battering Florida’s west coast. Nearly 2 million homes have lost power already and many more are threatened. The storm made its second landfall at Marco Island after striking the Florida Keys with 130 mile per hour gusts. The eastern side of Florida was feeling Irma also—two construction cranes fell in Miami, as winds hit 100 miles per hour and streets were flooded with waist-deep water.

The storm was forecast to move up the west coast of Florida, hitting Naples, Fort Meyers, Sarasota, and Tampa. Waters rose in Naples about 4 feet in 30 minutes at about 4pm. Before it reached Florida, Irma devastated the Caribbean. Barbuda, St. Martin, Anguilla, and both the British and U.S. Virgin Islands were the hardest hit. At least 22 people had died from the storm before it made landfall in Florida. Cuba’s coastal areas were hit hard, but there were no reports of any deaths there.

Nearly the whole state of Florida has been under a tornado watch since Irma arrived. Officials were warning people in Georgia, Tennessee, Alabama, and South Carolina to prepare for severe impacts from the storm as it heads north.

Industrial Companies Leave Texans Exposed to Pollutants Released by Harvey

As southeast Texas and Louisiana begin the long-term efforts to put lives back together after hurricane Harvey, concerns over industrial pollution are increasing. Large oil and gas companies released more than 1 and a half million pounds of pollutants in an eight-day period before and after the hurricane.

At a Valero Energy refinery, a floating roof covering a tank sank due to the heavy rains brought by Harvey, causing benzene, a known carcinogen, to leak into the atmosphere. Many plants in the hurricane’s path released extra pollutants into the air when they shut down and other facilities damaged by wind or water inadvertently released hazardous gases.

As the Arkema chemical plant started exploding and then burned in nearby Crosby, police officers and first responders became ill and started to fall on roads where they were stationed a mile and a half from the facility. The Houston Chronicle reports that the first responders sued Arkema last week saying that it’s not the first time that a hurricane has hit the Gulf Coast, and chemical manufacturers should have a plan in place to prepare for natural disasters.

The EPA said that 13 of 41 Superfund sites which are some of the most toxic areas in the US were inundated. The agency said that as of now only 2 of those 13 don’t require emergency cleanup efforts.

As the flood waters recede, many of the chemical and refining facilities are coming back online. Staring up a plant is a dangerous period, because it entails restarting complex chains of chemical reactions that require a perfect balance to prevent uncontrolled releases and explosions. What’s worse is that, according to the Houston Chronicle, both state and federal authorities are poorly equipped to monitor plants restarting because of under staffing and lack of funding.

Unprecedented Flash Drought Hits Montana and the Dakotas as Fires Burn in the Northwest

“It’s unprecedented." That’s what Tanja Fransen of the National Weather Service said about what’s being called a “flash drought” in Montana and North and South Dakota. She told the Guardian that it’s as dry now has it has been in recorded history. The area is one of the country’s most important wheat growing regions, and a combination of sudden high temperatures and little rain has led to farmer’s losing entire crops or having poor quality harvests.

Montana is also experiencing a horrible wildfire season – with more than 1 million acres burned, and predictions are for the destruction to continue for weeks. Nearly 80 wildfires were burning as of the end of last week in Washington, Oregon, California, Idaho in addition to Montana.

Some are asking why there are so many fires if the winter delivered a lot of snow? The answer: that precipitation resulted in grasses growing taller and thicker. Then it became hot very fast and the snow melted very fast. As the grasses died out there was plenty of fuel for wildfires.

Plastic Contaminants Are Found in Tap Water All over the World

Tiny plastic fibers are everywhere—in the air we breathe and the water we drink. Now a new investigation by Orb Media, a non-profit news organization, concludes that tiny microplastic fibers were found in tap water samples taken on five continents. The study was done in more than 12 countries including the US, Lebanon, France, Malaysia, and India. The US had the most plastic contamination with more than 90% of the samples showing the fibers. They were found at many places including EPA’s headquarters, Congressional buildings, and even Trump Tower in New York.

How they get into tap water is not clear, but many of the fibers come from washing clothes with the average machine capable of releasing thousands of particles each cycle. According to Orb Media, a single fleece jacket can shed almost 2,000 synthetic fibers in a single wash. Other fibers come from carpets, upholstery and tires—some from shampoos, toothpastes, and other personal care products.

The fibers are small—none bigger than five millimeters or about the length of a pencil eraser, with many much smaller about the size of one tenth of the tip of a pencil. The health effects on humans from ingesting microplastics are unclear, but studies done on animals shows that the fibers can absorb toxic chemicals that are then released into the body. A professor of environmental health in the UK told the Guardian that research into the effects on human health is urgently needed.

Nevertheless, She Persisted.

And finally, today we leave you with the story of Nisha Dupuis, a 19-year old radio broadcaster on the island of Anguilla. As Irma hit the island, Dupuis kept broadcasting as the Category 5 hurricane toppled trees, destroyed cars, and ripped houses apart.

The CBC reports that panicked people from around the island called in trying to get in touch with authorities. Dupuis kept going telling people about the storm and conveying information to emergency responders about people who needed help. Our hats are off to Dupuis and all the unsung heroes of Irma and Harvey.

Outro music: “Respiro” by Mattia Vlad Morleo

"The Floods of August." That story and other headlines for the week ending September 3, 2017
[ Show/Hide Transcript ]

Harvey’s Lasting Effects on the Texas Gulf Coast

The flooding from Hurricane Harvey’s 51 inches of rain will have lasting effects on the Gulf Coast of Texas for years. The storm left southeastern parts of the Lone Star state inundated and destroyed, and then headed into Louisiana. The death toll from the storm in Texas so far is 53 according to CNN, but authorities are still searching for bodies. Thousands of survivors took refuge in shelters.

The entire water system in Beaumont, a city of more than 100,000, had to be shut down due to flooding, and evacuation shelters there were closed due to the lack of water. As of Saturday, the water in Beaumont was still rising. Nearly 200,000 homes in the Houston area have been damaged, the Washington Post reported, with almost 13,000 destroyed. That number will rise as officials have not yet been able to access some areas. More than half a million people have registered with FEMA for disaster assistance. There are threats to public health after the water recedes.

The Guardian reports that the hurricane has resulted in Houston’s petrochemical industry leaking thousands of tons of pollutants, and communities are being exposed to soaring levels of toxic fumes and potential water contamination. Ozone levels spiked which were blamed by some on the shutdown and restarting of petrochemical and industrial plants. Environmentalists have estimated that 2 million pounds of hazardous pollutants have been released into the air. The EPA announced that 13 toxic superfund sites have been flooded or damaged, but agency officials have been unable to fully assess them because it is not yet safe.

Additionally, the Houston Chronicle warns that mold in homes carries serious risks especially for people with existing allergies and asthma. After Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans, mold was found in half of 112 homes sampled. Other injuries could result from lifting heavy, wet furniture and mattresses, and there is also the danger of being poisoned by fumes from portable power generators people use in homes. Some people are at risk of being electrocuted by plugging into outlets before they are checked for safety. And mosquitoes are likely to increase as water recedes and new breeding sites replace old ones swept away by the flooding.

As far as damage amounts are concerned, the likely cost of Harvey may be as high as 190 billion dollars according to AccuWeather. If accurate that would be more than either hurricanes Katrina or Sandy. However, some are estimating lower total damage figures.

Flooding from Sierra Leone, to Bangladesh, and War-torn Yemen

While Harvey hit Texas and Louisiana, attention was also focused on flooding in many other parts of the world. The Independent reports that earlier than usual monsoons in Asia have led to the worst flooding in decades affecting more than 40 million people and killing more than 1,200. Streets in Mumbai were turned into rivers. In Karachi, Pakistan, 16 people died from flash flooding, and 11 were electrocuted as waters rose in low lying urban areas. And in Bangladesh floods have killed nearly 150 and have affected millions.

In Sierra Leone on the west coast of Africa, about 500 people were killed by mudslides triggered by rains and flooding. Hundreds were missing. And in both Niger and Nigeria, hundreds of thousands have been displaced by flooding. Even war torn Yemen did not escape flooding. The Associated Press reports 18 people died and more than 30 are missing.

Does Global Warming Affect Storms Like Harvey? Scientists Weigh In.

The floods of August, including those from Hurricane Harvey have led to discussions of climate change and global warming. Michael Mann, distinguished professor of atmospheric science at Pennsylvania State University, wrote in the Guardian that while climate change did not cause Harvey, it worsened the impact of the storm due to several factors.

First, sea surface temperatures in the Gulf were warmer than average leading to more moisture in the area creating the potential for greater rainfalls and flooding in southeast Texas. Mann also explained that there is a deep layer of warm water that Harvey fed upon when it intensified at a near record pace as it neared the coast.

Additionally, sea level has risen more than half a foot over the past few decades because of climate change making the resulting storm surge six inches higher than it would have been. His conclusion: human caused climate change exacerbated several characteristics of the storm in a way that greatly increased the risk of damage and loss of life.

The increase in heat energy of our planet is not the primary cause of any storm like Harvey, but it does intensify the storms we now face. While some government officials are not admitting the increased risk from more intense storms, insurance companies are. The head of one of the world’s largest reinsurance companies told Reuters that there are more thunder storms in parts of Europe and the United States than in past decades, and they are more severe. And while in the future there may not be an increase in frequency, they do see an increase in intensity.

The Chicago Tribune reports that what seems to be changing among some scientists is that they see all storms as being affected by global warming. Kevin Trenberth of the National Center for Atmospheric Research has argued that all hurricanes and other storms will rain more today because the warmer atmosphere carries more moisture.

Next up: Irma, a Category 3 Hurricane That’s Moving Toward the Caribbean

The Floods of August all around the world have captured attention this week. While efforts to recover will continue for a long time, focus is now turning to Hurricane Irma, a Category 3 storm approaching the Leeward Islands in the Caribbean. While it’s way too early for meteorologists to predict whether Irma will hit the islands, AccuWeather warns that preparations should be in place. And it is possible, that Irma could hit the east coast of the U.S. next weekend or into the second week of September.

Outro music: “Any World (That I’m Welcome To)” by Steely Dan in tribute to Walter Becker who died today at the age of 67.

"One of the Worst Flooding Disasters in U.S. History." That story and other headlines for the week ending August 27, 2017[ Show/Hide Transcript ]

Hurricane Harvey

Hurricane Harvey hit the Texas coast on Friday night and Saturday morning. The storm lost some but not all its destructive wind, and was dropping huge amounts of rain in some places, 4 to 6 inches per hour. As of Sunday morning, the storm was producing rain bands that have stalled over the Houston area generating widespread flooding.

Some estimates show that in the last 24 hours the rainfall has exceeded the average amount Houston gets in 6 months. Patrick Blood a meteorologist with the National Weather Service told the Houston Chronicle that the storm is "catastrophic, unprecedented, epic, or whatever adjective you want to use." Forecasters were saying another 20 inches is possible in the coming days.

About 1,000 people were rescued overnight. Emergency management in Houston advised people to climb on to roofs not into attics unless they had a way to get out or an ax to cut through. The U.S. Coast Guard has eight helicopters helping with rescues and is calling for additional resources from other government agencies.

There were reports that 5 people have died in the storm but only two have been confirmed. Predictions from the National Hurricane Center on Sunday morning showed it was possible the storm could move south from its current location back over the Gulf of Mexico, and then return toward Houston.

Plastic Water Bottle Ban Reversed in National Parks

Recently the Trump administration lifted a ban on sales of plastic water bottles at some national parks started 6 years ago by Obama’s Interior Department. The policy was aimed at lessening the amount of plastic garbage. At the Grand Canyon, plastic bottles comprised twenty percent of the park’s total waste and, contributed much trash below the rim.

The Washington Post reports that the Park Service spent millions of dollars to install water stations for reusable bottles. Zion National Park estimated that its sales of them increased nearly eighty percent after it banned bottled-water sales. But, Trump’s Interior Department said the ban had removed the healthiest beverage choice while allowing sales of sweetened drinks. The department’s statement reiterated arguments made by a bottled water trade association which includes members like Nestlé.

Lauren DeRusha Florez, of Corporate Accountability International told SFGate that the industry set up a false choice between sugary drinks and bottled water, and that the old policy increased access to free tap water and promoted reusable bottles.

Federal Coal Mine Health Study in Appalachia Halted by Trump Administration

The Trump administration announced that is stopping a study being done about the health effects on people who live near surface coal mines in Central Appalachia. The study was being done by the National Academy of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine and was started last year, to analyze the effects of removing tops of mountains to expose coals seams. The removed rubble is dumped into nearby valleys and streams and can affect air and both surface and groundwater.

A Duke University professor told PBS that for every meter of coal obtained, almost 100 meters of rock has to be put somewhere and most of it ends up in river valleys. And a researcher from Indiana University told Congress in 2015 that coal from mountaintops releases pollutants that cause cancer, cardiovascular disease and birth defects.

The aim of the Obama Administration study was to safeguard the health of residents near the mines. According to Earth Justice more than 2000 miles of streams and headwaters have been permanently buried and destroyed. The Interior Department said that it stopped the study to determine if it was a responsible expenditure of taxpayer funds. Bill Price of the Sierra Club told the Washington Post that it’s infuriating Trump would halt the study that people in Appalachia have been demanding for years.

Atlantic Salmon Escape Washington Fish Farm and Threaten Pacific Salmon

Recently, thousands of Atlantic salmon escaped from a fish farm off the coast of Washington State and some people including local Native American tribes are concerned the farmed breed may threaten native Pacific salmon. Fish farming is done using large pens made of nets that are placed in ocean waters. The nets at Cooke Aquaculture, which contained more than 300,000 Atlantic salmon, collapsed releasing what was thought to be no more than 5,000. But last week the company said the actual number is much higher, according to the CBC. The Lummi Nation, a local Native American group, declared a state of emergency last week due to the escaped fish. They said in a statement that they had not heard the spill was contained.

State of Washington officials have put the Atlantic salmon on its list of invasive species considered to be highly threatening. The non-native salmon could harm native fish stocks by competing for food, preying on the Pacific salmon, and spreading disease. Local citizens are being asked to help catch the escaped fish. The head of the Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife is encouraging anglers to catch as many of the Atlantic salmon as possible.

Is Your Goldfish Bored?

And finally, happen to have a goldfish at your home or office? Well if you don’t clean its bowl frequently enough it gets murky—and a bit unpleasant to look at. But worse, it’s also running low on oxygen, which fish need to survive. But according to new research, goldfish and their cousin the Crucian carp have a survival mechanism that helps them cope in oxygen-starved waters.

Most fish, as well as us humans, take in oxygen into cells to release energy. Without it, we’d be toast in a matter of minutes. In a pinch, the body can produce lactic acid to create energy using glucose instead, but it's only for short bursts of activity, like doing a sprint and it’s what makes our muscles hurt and burn. But goldfish and crucian carp have a unique ability to take that lactic acid and convert it into ethanol. That alcohol is then diffused across their gills and released into the water around them, allowing the animals to survive for months on end without oxygen.

So for that goldfish to survive in your child’s murky fishbowl...it's hitting the sauce—big time. According to Michael Berenbrink, co-author of the study, carp in ice-covered ponds can have blood alcohol concentrations of more than 50mg per 100 milliliters, which is above the limit to drive in most countries. We don’t have to worry about our goldfish getting behind the wheel, but now we know why they don’t get bored just swimming through the castle over and over again. They’re probably feeling pretty happy.

"States Challenge Native Americans’ Claims to Groundwater." That story and other headlines for the week ending August 13, 2017[ Show/Hide Transcript ]

U.S. Supreme Court Asked to Review Decision Recognizing Native American Rights to Groundwater

There is a water case so significant that last week ten states from Nevada to Texas asked the U.S. Supreme Court to review it. A federal appeals court recently ruled that the Agua Caliente tribe has a right to groundwater dating back to the creation of their reservation in the 1870s. That could mean that tribes have federally protected rights to surface and ground water that would give native Americans priority over rights created under state law.

The Desert Sun reports that the Agua Caliente tribe sued agencies in 2013 asserting they had rights to groundwater under its reservation in Palm Springs, California, and the surrounding area. The Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals agreed and if its ruling prevails the case would set a powerful precedent for other tribes across the country, strengthening their claims to groundwater. There is no guarantee that the high court will take the case. However, it seems more likely because the U.S. Supreme Court has never been asked to rule on Native Americans' claims to similar water rights.

Disaster Looming for North Korea, but Not Due to Threats of Nuclear War

While attention has been focused on the rhetoric between Donald Trump and North Korean leader Kim Jong Un, a dire humanitarian crisis is facing the people of Kim’s country: drought and famine. The United Nations warned late last month that the lack of rain could be the worst for the country since 2001. This year a severe dry spell hampered the planting season for rice and cereal producing provinces.

Famine due to drought is not new in North Korea. CNN reports from 1995 to 1999 about 2 to 3 million people died from hunger. In 2016, the UN said that about 40% of the North Korean population was malnourished. Now the UN Food and Agriculture Organization is calling for other countries to donate more food; but the likelihood of that is not great, given the international community’s inclination for increased sanctions.

A U.S. Agency Is Being Dismantled in Secret

Scott Pruitt, head of the EPA, is dismantling the agency by closing offices, eliminating staff, and rolling back regulations, and he is doing so as secretly as he can. Interviews conducted by the New York Times of 20 current and former EPA employees reveal that Pruitt takes extraordinary steps to run the agency behind closed doors–literally. Some told the Times that doors to the floor with Pruitt’s offices are locked and employees must have an escort to gain entrance. Some are also told not to bring cell phones to meetings and not to take notes. Pruitt has armed security with him 24/7, and sometimes makes important calls not from his own office, but elsewhere.

An example of the stealth of Pruitt’s method in rolling back rules is how the agency has reset the definition of the Waters of the U.S. (WOTUS) under the Clean Water Act. Staffers were told to eliminate an assessment by the Obama Administration proposed rule that showed favorable economic results. A report was then prepared saying that there was no economic benefit to preserving wetlands, when the earlier version showed a benefit of nearly $600 million. The process to change the analysis was done overnight without the usual examination that can take up to months or even years.

Pruitt’s secrecy has recently drawn a lawsuit. The State of California is suing the agency because it allegedly failed to comply with a request for documents that might indicate whether Pruitt has conflicts of interest. The suit is aimed at stopping Pruitt from being involved in rolling back rules over which he sued EPA while Oklahoma’s Attorney General. An EPA spokesperson denied the allegations.

Fires Are Burning All Over the Globe Even Greenland

Wildfires across the US have burned almost 6 million acres which is nearly 2 million more than the average. Smoke from the fires has spread east across the country. Conditions were so bad in Montana, that the people of the town of Seeley Lake, were advised to leave or at least find somewhere else to sleep due to the smoke.

Fires have also been burning in Canada, Italy, Romania, Russia, other parts of Europe, and even in Greenland, an island covered mostly in ice. According to Wildfire Today thousands of acres of permafrost are being charred releasing carbon as they burn.

This news about wildfires comes as NOAA recently released data showing that the first half of this year was the second warmest ever for the planet and that the month of June was the third hottest. In Europe, a record breaking heat wave has been dubbed Lucifer. And the New York Times reports that in parts of Asia including Pakistan, new high temperature records have people comparing it to living in hell.

High temperatures also struck the American Northwest and Southwest. ThinkProgess reports that based upon 20 studies extreme heat is one of the signature characteristics of global climate change. In other words, the hotter the world is the greater chance that a heat wave will bring extreme temperatures.

Climate Change Sinks Art Work About Climate Change

Wetland And finally, seems that climate change has a sense of humor. Last week a floating art installation designed to raise awareness about rising waters...sunk during a severe storm. An environmental art project called WetLand, that looks like a partially submerged home, was inspired by images of houses flooded during Hurricane Katrina and Superstorm Sandy.

But last weekend, the artwork that’s built on a houseboat, collapsed after it took on water from heavy rain and was pummeled by debris floating down the Schuylkill River in Philadelphia. Ironically, the artist Mary Mattingly had created the work as a commentary on climate change. According to WHYY, the installation included solutions like solar panels as well as a water garden that might help coastal residents adapt to environmental damage.

The Philadelphia Inquirer reports that the plan is to lift the boat from the river bottom and tow it to a location to assess the damage. That undertaking could cost thousands of dollars, and it’s not clear who will ultimately foot the bill for removal—but fair to say, it won’t be cheap. But neither is the adaptation to climate change. And perhaps that’s the biggest takeaway from the artwork's message.

"Help Is on the Way for Coral Reefs." That story and other headlines for the week ending July 30, 2017[ Show/Hide Transcript ]

Cruise Ships in the Arctic–What Could Go Wrong?

If you have an extra $22,000, you can book yourself on a cruise setting sail next month for a journey through the Arctic. The luxury liner, Crystal Serenity will pass through frigid waters from Alaska to New York. But what’s different about this cruise, is that it comes with risks like getting stuck in ice—or getting grounded and breaking apart. Also, medical problems could arise. The Arctic doesn’t have emergency services available that most other areas of the planet provide.

As the New York Times reports, to deal with some of those possibilities, the Serenity will be accompanied by a British supply ship which is usually restocking Antarctic bases at the other pole. Up in the Arctic it will carry emergency water and rations for the luxury ship if needed. It also has two helicopters and equipment to contain an oil spill.

People who work in maritime safety like those at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, are being kept awake at night by safety concerns not just because of this cruise but due to more shipping through the Arctic. Also, other cruise lines are planning for future Arctic excursions. Emergency response to a disaster in the far north does not have a lot of infrastructure. The Serenity cruise is well prepared but still, Timothy Keane of a Montreal based shipping company said, "It only takes a little bit of ice to ruin your day."

These Gardeners Are Wearing Wet Suits Reversing a Decline over the Past Four Decades

There has been much disturbing news recently about the bleaching and decline of coral reefs all over the world, but there are some promising developments along Florida’s east coast. There, a coral reef runs for 300 miles, containing hundreds of species of plants and animals. And like other reefs, there has been a drastic decline over the past 4 decades. According to Stephanie Schopmeyer from the University of Miami, the problem is mostly due to climate change.

A study she co-authored published in the journal Coral Reefs found that corals are benefiting from a process of "gardening" that restores the plant populations. The study showed that corals raised in laboratories and planted by divers can help native species. Thousands of the lab grown plants have been placed in degraded reefs. Coral reefs are critical because they’re habitat for many species which sustain food for humans, and are a defense against damage from hurricanes.

State Attorneys General Are Giving EPA Administrator a Taste of His Own Medicine

Scott Pruitt, head of the EPA, is no stranger to environmental litigation. Before being appointed to run the agency, he sued EPA thirteen times as Oklahoma Attorney General, claiming among other things, that the agency had over-stepped its authority. Now, Pruitt is the one being sued. Last week eleven states filed suit claiming the EPA cannot delay implementation of a chemical safety rule. In part the delayed rule would require industrial plants using chemicals to prepare for accidents and give the EPA more oversight. The Hill reports that the regulation was partially a response to an explosion at a chemical plant in Texas that killed 15 people.

Another suit against EPA may be in the works as two states, Maryland and Connecticut, filed notice that they will sue if the agency does not respond to petitions each made about pollution from upwind power plants.

In yet another action, Pruitt’s agency is being sued by states challenging its failure to ban a pesticide despite studies that show it can harm the development of children’s brains. Pruitt said to Congress that the decision not to ban the pesticide was based on science; but so far, the EPA has not provided any data to back him up. The trend seems clear: state attorneys general are giving Mr. Pruitt a taste of his own medicine.

Study: Climate Change May Bring Vexing Problem to Northeast and the Mississippi Valley

While increases in rainfall might seem like a good thing at times, a new study is warning about the possibility of a large growth in algal blooms from increased precipitation flushing more fertilizer runoff into water ways. Last summer the governor of Florida had to declare an emergency in four counties due to a massive growth of algae, some described as "guacamole-like." It was harmful to marine life and choked off the tourist-based economy. There are reports it is happening again.

The nutrients from fertilizers stimulate the growth of algae and when they die and decompose, they create dead zones, according to Anna Michalak who spoke to Wired. She co-authored the study published last week in Science predicting that as the climate warms, there will likely be more toxin producing algal blooms. In the worst-case scenario, more precipitation could increase the nitrogen-laced runoff by almost 20 percent by century's end affecting areas from Maine to Maryland, and the Mississippi watershed. With climate change, those areas are likely to see more rain and runoff. To counter those effects, there would need to be a more than 30 percent reduction in overall nitrogen mainly by cutting back the use of fertilizers. As Michalak told the New York Times, while climate change will affect water quantity, it will also affect water quality.

In the Netherlands, You Might Find Toilet Tissue in Your Bike Lane—on Purpose

And finally, years ago rock singer Sheryl Crow urged her fans to use "one square of toilet paper a visit" to protect the planet. Two to three squares on "pesky occasions," she advised. But is that really "doo-able"? Maybe, maybe not, but recently in the Netherlands, they say indulge yourself because that toilet paper flushed—they’re going to convert it into bike lanes and bottle caps!

Yes, a Dutch company has just launched the first treatment plant to recover the cellulose from toilet paper in sewage systems and turn it into fluffy pellets, which can then be used in asphalt and other building materials. This may work well in the Netherlands because they have a preference for luxury toilet tissue and that means the cellulose is of high quality, according to a managing director of CirTec, one of two companies behind the "Cellvation" project that launched in June.

The Dutch flush away 180,000 tons of paper each year, according to the country's water authorities. And they say that’s a missed opportunity for energy generation and resource recovery. The Cellvation project is just one of many schemes around the country attempting to extract value from sewage. Another company, AquaMinerals, is producing calcite pellets from wastewater that can be used in ceramics and paint.

Being clever and innovative? It’s just how they roll in the Netherlands.

"California Counties Sue Oil and Gas Giants." That story and other headlines for the week ending July 23, 2017[ Show/Hide Transcript ]

More Problems on New Pipeline Project for DAPL Operator

Energy Transfer Partners, the company that is operating the controversial Dakota Access Pipeline in North Dakota, is now facing an investigation by federal regulators over violations at another project. The Associated Press reports that the company’s Rover Pipeline, partly in Ohio, has wrecked wetlands, flooded farm fields, and destroyed an historic farm house.

In a preliminary finding, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission determined that the company and its subsidiary did not disclose all relevant information about its new pipeline which runs for more than 700 miles from Pennsylvania through Ohio and Michigan into Canada. The FEDs ordered the company to clean up and restore 6 acres of wetlands and remove diesel fuel from quarries. The federal authorities have also banned the company from drilling under waterways to build the pipeline until it explains how the spills occurred.

In addition to the federal violations, The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency has issued 10 notices to the company for things such as spilling several million gallons of drilling mud laced with chemicals into wetlands. The state is seeking almost a million dollars in fines. Craig Butler, director of Ohio's Environmental Protection Agency told Midwest Energy News that as soon as the company started building the pipeline they began having problems, because they were moving too quickly trying to meet a deadline and cutting corners. A lawyer for some farmers in Ohio told Inside Climate News that the company just goes and does things and asks for forgiveness later. He added that the company was basically telling landowners to get out of the way.

Studies: Climate Change Causing Increased Storm Intensity in Arizona and New Storm Patterns on Coasts

Large monsoon thunderstorms are bringing more extreme wind and rain to parts of Arizona than they did in the past according to a new study. The research published in the Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology shows that, while there are fewer large storms than there used to be, they bring heavier rain and stronger winds than storms 60 years ago. Dust storms, flash flooding, microbursts and wind pose the immediate dangers.

The affected areas of the Grand Canyon state do not include the swimming hole where, recently, 10 people were killed by a flash flood near Payson, Arizona. But the Phoenix metropolis and the Colorado River valley along with all low deserts are seeing storms of more intensity. One of the study’s authors, Christopher Castro, told Science Daily that the less frequent but more intense storms are consistent with expectations due to climate change.

Another study done by researchers in Australia shows that, as storm patterns fluctuate due to climate change, waterfront areas once thought to be safe are likely to be hammered and damaged as never before.

The study looked at the superstorm that hit Australia’s east coast in June of 2016. While it was of only modest intensity, it struck from the east which was highly unusual. The storm was so destructive that it shifted the coast an average of 25 yards inland. The storm washed away millions of tons of sand from beaches across a 125 mile stretch of Australia’s eastern seaboard.

One of the study’s scientists told Science Daily, that we will be facing storms coming from directions that do not follow old patterns and may be many times more devastating to shorelines and coastal buildings. The study shows that climate change is not only leading to sea level rise, but also making coastlines previously thought to be safe much more vulnerable.

New Legal Claims Being Made against Fossil Fuel Companies

Fossil fuel companies are being sued by different groups based upon claims that they knew the damage their products were causing to the planet, but continued production while hiding scientific evidence. Two county governments in the San Francisco Bay Area sued 37 oil, gas and coal companies last week for failing to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. Marin and San Mateo Counties and the southern California city of Imperial Beach are claiming that the companies are responsible for things such as frequent flooding, beach erosion as well as the possibility that water will eventually inundate roads, airports, sewage treatment plants and other real estate.

SFGate reports that the suits claim that Chevron, BP, Arch Coal, and Shell among others knew about the damage their actions were causing, denied it and sought to discredit scientific findings that greenhouse gas emissions were heating the Earth’s atmosphere. Also named in the suits are the American Petroleum Institute and the Western States Petroleum Association.

In related news, a group of current and former employees of ExxonMobil are suing the company for endangering the value of their retirement accounts. They allege that the company damaged them by fraudulently inflating its stock and misrepresenting what it knew about the risks of climate change to its business. The employees and retirees say that executives in charge of the company retirement plan knew it was committing fraud and should have avoided investing in the company’s own stock.

SeaMer_sponges A French Environmentalist Finds "Butterscotch Mousse" far from a Paris Bistro

And finally this week, hundreds of thousands have flocked to French beaches recently. But we’re not talking tourists. Rather it’s an invasion of mysterious yellow clumps that, according to LiveScience, look like sponges, or unappetizing hunks of butterscotch mousse, or even possibly the biggest balls of earwax ever. Officials say the mystery balls washing up on French beaches along the English Channel aren’t dangerous, and might be from building materials made from polyurethane.

Some testing indicates that the clumps could be paraffin wax which comes from oil, oil shale or coal, and is used in food products, crayons, and candles, and most likely came from passing ships. An environmental group spokesperson who was brave enough to pick one up one of the wet things said that they easily break apart and that while the globs may not be toxic, wildlife could be harmed if too much is ingested. It is not the first time the playdough-like infestation has occurred, in fact it’s the third time within a year. The first spongy things were pink, the next ones were white.

So, if going to the French beach this summer, take your swimsuit and sunscreen—and your camera—'cause you might just run into "Glob Sponge Pants."

"Don’t Mess with These Sisters." That story and other headlines for the week ending July 16, 2017
[ Show/Hide Transcript ]

Nuns Set Up an Open-Air Chapel to Stop Pipeline

An Oklahoma-based company that is planning to build a natural gas pipeline in Pennsylvania has run into some unexpected opposition: Nuns. A group of Catholic sisters has set up an open-air chapel complete with pews and an altar directly in the path of the Atlantic Sunrise Pipeline which is planned to cross the land they own. The order, known as Adorers of the Blood of Christ, has a land ethic that says the Earth is a sanctuary and they are going to work to protect it, according to a spokesperson from the group Lancaster Against Pipelines.

Rewire reports that last Sunday more than 300 people attended a meeting called “Stand with the Sisters” at the outdoor chapel. The nuns have refused to sign a lease so the company is taking them to court in an effort to seize the land through eminent domain. A hearing is scheduled July 17th. The proposed pipeline is 183 miles long and costs $3 billion. Environmentalists fear that any leak could damage the Chesapeake Bay watershed.

Duke Energy Seeks Rate Increase for Costs of Pollution It May Have Caused

Duke Energy in North Carolina is seeking a rate increase to clean up pollution that it allegedly caused. The company is the largest generator of electricity in the country, and wants its customers to pay on average 15% more part of which will help cover costs to clean up coal ash waste. State regulators and environmentalists say that Duke has allowed coal ash to pollute rivers and drinking water wells.

The ash comes from burning coal and is laced with many toxic chemicals. The Associated Press reports that in 2014 the company was forced to address how it disposes of the byproduct after an accident at a waste pit coated miles of the Dan River with gray sludge. One homeowner, who has been forced to drink bottled water since chemicals appeared in his neighborhood, likened the situation to a septic company spilling sewage all over his property and sending him a bill to clean it up.

Duke Power denies that it has polluted waters, and it was successful last year in passing the cost of clean-up to rate payers in South Carolina. The company says that clean-up is part of the cost of generating electricity. But, Dona Lisenby of Waterkeeper Alliance told EcoWatch that working families struggling to make ends meet should not be forced to pay for Duke’s negligent management of leaking coal ash ponds.

Underwater Noise Reduction Project Undertaken Hopes to Help Whales

It may be the first project in the world of its scale–that’s what they’re calling a program to assess how noise reduction from ships may help killer whales in waters near Vancouver, British Columbia. More than 30 maritime companies–like Carnival and Celebrity cruise lines, and Maersk shipping—will voluntarily slow their ships when moving toward the Haro Straight, to see if it will help killer whales. The sounds from ship propellers are thought to interfere with the whales’ ability to hunt, navigate and socialize. The slowing will lessen noise underwater.

The shipping industry has worked with the Port of Vancouver for about a year to gain industry support for the speed reduction to 12 miles per hour, now set to occur for two months beginning in early August. Orla Robinson, who is manager of the program, told the Vancouver Sun that they are trying to understand the relationship between slower vessel speeds, underwater noise levels and the effects on the whales. They will also see how the speed reduction affects the companies’ finances and operations. A representative of the Vancouver Aquarium said the underwater noise is one of the principal threats to killer whales who take up summer residence near Vancouver.

Massive Iceberg Calves off Antarctica–May Not Be Due to Global Warming

It contains twice as much water as used in the United States every year. That’s the size of the iceberg that broke off the Larsen C Ice Shelf in Antarctica last week. The berg, may itself break apart, but could also drift into the south Atlantic Ocean. It is not expected to pose any risk to any shipping. It is not clear that the break off was due to global warming. Scientific American reports that the calving of the berg does not signal a change in Antarctica and it is not in the same warming conditions that are occurring at the other pole in the Arctic.

Dan McGrath, a glaciologist at Colorado State University said that the Antarctic Peninsula is the most rapidly warming region on the continent, but that calving is natural; however, he added it was also concerning. Still, climate change cannot be ruled out as a cause of the calving of the Delaware-sized iceberg.

You’d Be Better Off Drinking Straight from Your Dog’s Water Bowl

TreadmillReviews3 And finally, if you were really, really thirsty would you slurp out of your dog’s water dish? Well, if you don’t wash your water bottle every day, it’s probably worse than if you drank straight from Fido’s bowl. That’s according to research conducted by the team at Treadmill Reviews. They swabbed a dozen water bottles used by athletes that hadn’t been washed in a week and sent samples to an independent lab for testing.

They found that water bottles carried, on average, more than 300,000 colony-forming units of bacteria per square centimeter. That’s roughly six times the amount found on pet bowls—and just slightly fewer than on a toothbrush sitting unwashed near a toilet. They tested different kinds of bottles, too. Bottles with squeeze tops, slide tops, screw tops, and straws. Slide tops were the worst—and a bit surprisingly—bottles with straws fared the best. That may be because water drips to the bottom of the straw rather than sticking around to attract moisture-loving germs. However, those bottles had only slightly less bacteria than the average home toilet seat. Not all the germs were bad, but some were the kind that can cause skin infections, pneumonia, or blood poisoning.

So what to do? They’re not recommending that you toss your container or switch to bottled water, which would just add to the landfills and deplete groundwater resources. Instead, just be sure to wash your bottle every day. And in choosing one, stainless steel bottles are naturally anti-bacterial and don't develop germ-harboring cracks.

Until next time, stay hydrated my friends.

How to Clean Your Reusable Water Bottle from Shape magazine

A Look Under the Cap: Water Bottle Germs Revealed by TreadmillReviews.net

"Ancient Rome Offers a Solution to Sea Level Rise." That story and other headlines for the week ending July 9, 2017[ Show/Hide Transcript ]

Tensions in the South China Sea Have Increased Because of Something Kept Secret for Three Weeks

The situation in the South China Sea has been tense and a recent move by Vietnam may have made it worse. The country has begun drilling for oil in waters claimed by China. The BBC reports that Vietnam’s drilling was kept secret for about 3 weeks because it was so sensitive. China claims more than 90 percent of the South China Sea, but a world court arbitration panel rejected that claim in 2016.

For the last couple of years Vietnam has avoided provoking its neighbor to the north, but now some say China may not react immediately to the drilling as it focuses on increasing trade. However, the Chinese have cancelled border defense talks with Vietnam. And adding more tension in the area, India is supporting Vietnam by providing naval patrol boats, satellite reconnaissance and military training.

There Was Another Missile Launch That You Might Not Have Heard About

While much attention was paid to North Korea’s test of its intercontinental ballistic missile, little notice was given to the Russian launch of an anti-ship missile in the Artic. The Russian missile was launched from a submarine and traveled about 250 miles.

Of course, there is a significant difference between the North Korean weapon that can travel from one continent to another, and the Russian rocket intended to destroy enemy vessels. But Russia’s launch emphasizes that it is building up its military in the Arctic, where it now has nearly 80 ships.

Newsweek reports that in April of this year, Russia opened a military base in the Arctic, and plans at least four more. As stated by Russian President Putin, climate change has increased the number days available for shipping and opened more routes through the Arctic, leading to what he called better economic opportunities. There are five countries that claim territory in the Arctic: besides Russia, they include the U.S., Denmark, Norway, and Canada.

An Engineer Calls This the Most Durable Building Material in History Roman and He Is Not Prone to Hyperbole

About 2,000 years ago the Romans were developing a material that might help us combat rising sea levels today. The Romans used concrete that strengthens as it is exposed to saltwater. In contrast, today’s concrete corrodes within decades. The hope is that a new material based on the ancient ways may be used to build sea walls and other adaptations to counter intrusive waters.

The Washington Post reports that scientists examined the microscopic structures of Roman concrete samples, and found that they used a volcanic ash in their recipe that makes it stronger and more durable when mixed with seawater. The mixture formed crystals that stopped cracks from forming. Philip Brune, a research scientist who studied Roman monuments told the Post that the concrete is the most durable building material in human history, and he says he is not prone to hyperbole—being an engineer. The Romans used their concrete to build sea walls and piers that far outlasted the Empire itself.

Republicans and Democrats Are United Against the Trump Administration When It Comes to This Practice

Many Republicans and Democrats are united against a Trump administration policy that will allow seismic testing for oil and gas development in oceans. Earlier this year, the President signed an executive order that opened the Atlantic to offshore drilling. The government is now set to permit five companies to use seismic air gun blasting to detect reserves of oil and gas. As reported in The Atlantic magazine, ships would tow dozens of cannons behind them that create sound explosions. The echoes bounced back from the ocean floor allow technicians to locate petroleum deposits.

A group of 75 scientists have said that the amount of noise created by the canons kills or perturbs the entire range of marine life from whales to plankton. Despite that, the Administration is moving fast to permit the blasting which could start off the Atlantic coast as early as this fall. However, environmental groups and thousands of businesses are united against the testing, and they’re getting support from Congress.

A Democrat from Virginia and a Republican from New Jersey have introduced a bill in the House that would ban the seismic practice, and a similar bill has been introduced in the Senate. Additionally, 103 members from both sides of the House signed a letter to Interior Department Secretary Ryan Zinke urging an immediate halt to the permitting. They wrote that seismic air gun testing puts at risk Atlantic Coast economies dependent on healthy oceans. Nevertheless, it is expected that the permitting will go forward and then lawsuits will be filed to stop it.

Nearly a Quarter of Americans Want ‘Organic Water’–Something That Technically Didn’t Exist Until Now

And finally, as we’ve been reporting, the bottled water market has been exploding. Americans drank nearly 13 billion gallons last year—edging out soda for the first time. And they’re not just drinking any old water. Specialty and mineral water products grew 75 percent between 2014 and 2016, according to the research and consulting firm Mintel. We’re talking your glacier waters, infused waters—and even something called prehistoric water.

One remarkable finding jumped out in the research—nearly 25 percent of Americans want “organic water.” But what’s that? The USDA says anything with the ‘organic’ label—food, drinks, fabric—has to be, by definition, 'derived from living matter'—that means, of course, containing carbon. But water is just atoms of hydrogen and oxygen. H2O. Well, a company called Asarasi found a workaround. Or should we say they "tapped" into a way to get USDA to certify it organic.

Founder Adam Lazar got his idea after watching maple syrup being made. He noticed there was a lot of leftover water from the process. The water is technically drained from maple trees, living things, so boom, he got his certification. Asarasi says their product is renewable and sustainable and doesn’t pull from shrinking groundwater resources. They also say their water is "free of all impurities and the purest source of water in the world!"

In the world? There’s a lot of competition for that title from glacier waters and others. Tanzamaji water, sourced from Lake Tanganyika in Africa claims to be “prehistoric water” and the purest water because the lake is so deep it’s been untouched for millions of years and never been exposed to pesticides or other man-made contaminants. For consumers who want pure bottled water, all these claims must make their choices kind of murky.

"The Country of Pakistan May Be Running Out of Water." That story and other headlines for the week ending July 2, 2017[ Show/Hide Transcript ]

Water Crisis in Pakistan

There’s a severe and chronic water shortage in the entire country of Pakistan, a situation that is not expected to improve. There’s little to no water flowing in pipelines in Karachi, a city of at least 25 million, according to a member of parliament who spoke to the Express Tribune. He noted that a black market of tankers is selling water at exorbitant rates. People in cities around the country have recently had to fill water jugs from public stations at 3AM, according to the Washington Post.

Day to day life in is made more difficult because there have been major cut backs in electricity. One man said that in his house his family can use only one light and one fan. Recently the temperatures in parts of the country reached over 127 degrees Fahrenheit. People and agriculture are dependent on water flowing from India with whom Pakistan has had three wars and much political strife. Tensions are higher now as India’s prime minister Modi promotes Hindu nationalistic policies.

The crisis in Pakistan is dire as global warming reduces the amount of water that will flow from glaciers to rivers, and as groundwater is being diminished due to over pumping. The Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources warns that the whole country could run out of water as early as 2025 if authorities do not act immediately.

Americans Are Worried about Their Water, and the Trump Administration Is likely Adding to that Anxiety

A poll was released at the Aspen Ideas Festival revealing Americans are concerned on a nationwide basis about their drinking water. The sampling showed that two out of three Americans believe their community is vulnerable to a water crisis. And a third of those polled said they question whether the water in homes and schools is clean and safe. The survey done by Nestlé Waters comes in the wake of the crisis in Flint, Michigan, which no doubt has raised awareness about the importance of water.

And it also comes at the same time that the Trump Administration announced it was beginning the process to redefine what waters are protected under the Clean Water Act. The Obama administration had crafted a rule which would have protected more than half of the country’s rivers, streams, and wetlands from pollutants. Now, presumably the EPA and the Army Corps of Engineers will craft a rule that is not nearly as inclusive, and which will now possibly create even more anxiety about the country’s drinking water.

EPA's Chief of Staff "Bullied" the Top Scientist on the Agency’s Scientific Review Board to Change Her Congressional Testimony

Speaking of the EPA, it was learned last week that a Trump political appointee in the agency tried to bully a top science advisor into altering her testimony to Congress. Deborah Swackhamer, a retired professor at the University of Minnesota, and leader of the EPA science advisory panel, was set to testify about Trump’s decision to dismiss most of the board’s members. The panel is not directly involved in the agency’s studies, but gives critical feedback on how those studies are conducted, assuring that the science is good.

Swackhamer had already prepared her statements to Congress commenting that the dismissals could lead to the perception that science was being politicized and marginalized within the EPA. The day before she was to testify she received emails from Ryan Jackson, the chief of staff of the EPA under Scott Pruitt.

He told her that decisions had not been made about whether to dismiss the scientists. However, some of them had already received letters to that effect. The official even included talking points urging Swackhamer to rework the testimony she had already released. Swackhamer told the New York Times that she was stunned by his emails, and felt bullied.

Democrats have asked the EPA's inspector general to investigate the claims that chief of staff pressured Swackhamer. Since her testimony, the EPA has sent out dozens more notices that scientists’ terms on the panel will not be renewed.

California’s Ancient Natives Used "Plastic" Water Bottles. Did It Affect Their Health?

Scientists have known for some time that ancient native societies living in Southern California may have used something similar to what we use today: plastic water bottles. The indigenous peoples stored water in large woven bulbs coated with naturally occurring bitumen or tar—the same substance we use to make roads.

A new study shows that the making of these prehistoric water carriers may have led to a decline in the health of the native peoples. The earliest evidence of the people who lived in the Channel Islands off the coast of southern California dates them to about 13,000 years ago, but they began to decline around 5,000 years ago. As reported in Wired, skeletal remains exhibit poor bone quality, smaller skulls and bad teeth.

Sabrina Sholts of the National Museum of Natural History in Washington D.C., decided to study the issue and she teamed up with others. They made the ancient style bottles and found that there were accumulations of various toxins in the water but probably not enough to explain the skeletal problems. However, the smoke inhaled by those who made the bottles could explain their health problems, but further research is necessary.

Swim Competition Lands Company in Hot Water

And finally, applying for a summer internship can be competitive. You’ll want to polish your resume, get good references..and, of course, look your best for the swimsuit portion of the contest. Wait, what? Yes, how you look in a bikini could score you a gig at a nuclear plant in the Czech Republic! That was the "glowing" idea at the Temelín Power Station, which posted pictures of ten high-school grads on its Facebook page with the promise that the woman who received the most 'likes' would be crowned "Miss Energy 2017" and awarded a two-week internship.

The public reacted, not surprisingly, with a total meltdown. Calling the stunt sexist, unethical and primitive and promoting beauty, not brains. The page has since been pulled, but according to CNN, each woman was wearing a bikini and a hard hat and had been photographed inside the station's cooling towers. The parent company, CEZ took to Facebook to say that all 10 women would be offered internships—and an apology, stating that the purpose of the competition was to promote "technical education." But probably the people who learned the most were the folks who planned the event and landed the nuclear power plant in hot water.

"Climate Change Expedition Held Up by Climate Change." That story and other headlines for the week ending June 18, 2017[ Show/Hide Transcript ]

A Legionnaires' Outbreak Leads to Charges of Involuntary Manslaughter Against Michigan State Officials

In connection with the Flint water crisis, the Michigan Attorney General charged five people with involuntary manslaughter for the death of an 85-year-old man who succumbed to Legionnaires' disease. The outbreak of the illness is alleged to have been caused by officials switching to the corrosive Flint River, the same water that caused lead poisoning. About a dozen people died and many were infected with Legionella in 2014 and 2015 in the county where Flint sits.

Those charged include the director of the state’s Health and Human Services Department who allegedly failed to warn the mostly black population of Flint about the outbreak. Facing other charges is the state’s top doctor who is accused of threatening to cut funding to researchers studying the link between the Flint River and Legionnaires'. She is also accused of lying to investigators.

Robert Skidmore, the 85-year-old who died in 2015 had lived in Flint his whole life and worked at General Motors for 37 years. By the time he contracted the disease, the Attorney General said that state officials knew about the outbreak, but had not made it public.

EPA’s Scott Pruitt Is Blasted by a Surprising Group of Opponents

Scott Pruitt, head of the EPA testified at a House committee hearing on Thursday where he was barraged with tough questions from Republicans. The White House has proposed cutting the EPA’s budget by more than 30% and many members of the GOP showed their displeasure.

Representative Rodney Frelinghuysen, a Republican from New Jersey, expressed concern over the substantial cuts to nearly 100 hazardous waste sites of which his state has more than any other. Republican David Joyce from Ohio, pointed out that, if the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative is cut as Trump plans, it would have economic consequences. And a Republican from Idaho, Michael Simpson, told Pruitt that the job cuts at the EPA would mean fewer people testing and approving pesticides that potato farmers need.

According to Mother Jones, Trump’s budget would eliminate more than 50 EPA programs and cut the agency’s research nearly in half. Representative Mark Amodei, a Republican from Nevada, told Pruitt, that the EPA would get more money than Trump asked for, because, he noted that frankly nobody is standing on the rooftops begging for dirty water, dirty air, and dirty soil.

The Standing Rock Sioux Tribe Scores a Victory Against the Dakota Access Pipeline

When the Army Corps of Engineers completed its review of the Dakota Access Pipeline, it failed to adequately consider the impacts of an oil spill on the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe’s fishing and hunting rights. So ruled a federal judge in Washington D.C. on Wednesday. While the judge ruled that the agency had largely complied with environmental laws he also said that the Corps did not evaluate environmental justice issues. Federal agencies are required to consider whether a project will have an especially negative impact on poorer and minority communities. However, the judge said that he was hard pressed to conclude that the Trump administration had used reasonable criteria in doing so.

It is not clear what will happen next with the pipeline that is now transporting oil. The judge did not stop its operation, but he asked the Tribe and the owner of Dakota Access Pipe Line to submit briefs as to whether it should be stopped. The judge did order the Corps to reconsider its review, but an attorney for the Sioux told the Associated Press that the government might simply decide the pipeline is safe enough and reissue the permit. Nevertheless, Standing Rock Sioux Chairman Dave Archambault, II, called the ruling a major victory. The next hearing in the matter comes on Wednesday, June 21st.

Climate Change Puts Arctic Research on Ice and at the Other End of the World a Common Pest Is Threatening to Invade Antarctica

The first part of a climate change study to be conducted in Canada’s Hudson Bay had to be cancelled last week because of problems caused by climate change. Researchers from five Canadian universities were scheduled to travel north on an icebreaker, but due to warmer temperatures, hazardous sea ice from the Arctic is traveling further south.

The team has been monitoring and analyzing the effects of climate change on Arctic marine and coastal ecosystems since 2003 according to a statement from the University of Manitoba. One of the experts involved said that climate changes are increasing the mobility of sea ice now and will do so more often in the future. The ship the team used was earlier diverted off its course to help ferries and fishing boats deal with heavy ice in areas between Labrador and Newfoundland.

Meanwhile, at the other end of the world, the common housefly is threatening to invade parts of the Antarctic. The Guardian reports that with soaring temperatures plants and insects normally not present pose a major threat. The flies come on ships and then base themselves on the continent. One researcher said that the flies carry pathogens that could have a devastating effect on indigenous species.

Is It a Croc or Is It a Crock?

croc or crock? And finally, just outside Vancouver, Canada, there's a new roadside attraction. Or, should we say, roadside distraction. Police in Surrey, British Columbia, say they've received numerous calls from motorists claiming they’ve seen a crocodile in a marsh just off the highway. Now, saltwater crocodiles, the world’s largest living reptile at twenty feet long can be found in North America—but the furthest north you should find them is Florida and maybe South Carolina. You won’t find a croc wandering through wetlands in Canada.

If you’re lucky though, you may find the Northwestern Alligator Lizard, which can grow to a scary eight inches in length. Okay, then, so what’s lurking off Highway 17? According to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, it's a blown-out truck tire. They tweeted that "any croc' sighting in Surrey is just a load of garbage—literally."

Or, so they say... The Mounties are not willing to wade into the marsh to remove it. Sounds fishy? We looked at it, and you can, too. You decide if the so-called tire is a reptile, or if the Mounties’ claim is a crock of bull.

"Is a Popular Weed Killer in Our Food Supply?" That story and other headlines for the week ending June 11, 2017[ Show/Hide Transcript ]

Is Roundup’s Main Chemical Winding Up in Our Food? The FDA Resumes Its Study

The Food and Drug Administration has revived its review of glyphosate, a chemical contained in the popular weed killer Roundup®. A spokesperson for the agency confirmed to the Huffington Post that it is evaluating how much of the chemical is winding up in the food supply.

Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide in the world, and is the key ingredient in Monsanto’s Roundup®. The FDA’s study had been started and stopped in the past with no conclusion. The World Health Organization has classified glyphosate as a probable human carcinogen, but so far, the EPA and the European Food Agency have disagreed.

Also, it was learned last week that the Inspector General of the EPA started an investigation to determine if there was collusion between Monsanto and an agency official who made favorable assessments of glyphosate. That official, Jess Rowland, allegedly told Monsanto managers that he could “kill” EPA investigations into glyphosate. A company employee then sent an email to colleagues saying that the EPA official claimed, "If I can kill this, I should get a medal."

Both the FDA study and the EPA investigation are ongoing.

The Paris Accord Is Gaining Support and France Is Following up on Its Offer to Welcome Scientists and Students

Reactions to Donald Trump’s pulling the United States out of the Paris Climate Accord continued last week. Hawaii became the first state to enact laws reducing greenhouse gas emissions in alignment with the principles and goals of the Paris Agreement. Hawaii has been called the testing grounds for global warming. It’s an island state threatened by a shortage of fresh water, ocean acidification, and shoreline loss because of climate change.

And in more reaction to Trump’s move, the French government has created a website for people from all countries who want to fight climate change called: MakeOurPlanetGreatAgain.fr. The French are offering four year grants to students, teachers and researchers who want to continue their climate studies. The offer follows French President Emmanuel Macron’s direct video message to Americans saying that those concerned about the climate have a home in France.

The Business Insider notes that generally in Europe, climate change is less contentious, with few major political parties arguing against established science. To date twelve states and Puerto Rico, representing about a third of the U.S. population and a third of the its gross domestic product have joined a coalition to limit greenhouse gas emissions in line with the Paris Accord.

Colorado River and Grand Canyon Threatened with Lifting of Uranium Mining Ban

Local politicians in Arizona and Utah have asked the Trump Administration to rescind a ban on uranium mining near the Grand Canyon. Officials in Mojave County Arizona wrote to Interior Secretary Ryan Zinke saying that the restrictions imposed by the Obama Administration had taken away economic growth and jobs in their area just west of the Grand Canyon National Park.

Their request fits in squarely with Trump’s ongoing review of 26 areas designated as national monuments by President Obama. But, others want the uranium restrictions to remain. Carletta Tilousi, of the Havasupai tribe told KNAU that the ban is critical and that it’s not about the economy to them; rather it’s about human life and survival, and protection of the Colorado River. The Grand Canyon Trust, the Sierra Club and the League of Conservation Voters agree. They say uranium mining poses a threat to water and to the tourist visits to the Grand Canyon which topped 6 million last year.

To the east of the Grand Canyon, uranium mining has led to devastating consequences to the Navajo Tribe. According to NPR, many Navajo have died of kidney failure and cancer, conditions linked to uranium contamination.

Python Hunting to Continue in South Florida

The South Florida Water Management District is continuing its program to pay hunters to kill pythons in Miami-Dade and two other counties in the Everglades. According to the Miami Herald the snakes started spreading across parts of southern Florida in the 1990s. It is suspected that the invasive species came from people abandoning pet snakes. Some estimates put the number of invasive pythons at about 100,000, and the program to date has only netted about 160, but still the water district thinks the program is necessary.

The Everglades contain a wide variety of species and the snakes are eating raccoons, rabbits, birds, and one was even found to have a deer in its belly. The python is robbing other predators such as panthers and alligators of their food source, and one study said the snake was responsible for a 90% decline in small mammals in Everglades National Park.

Hunting the creatures is not for the faint of heart. They can reach up to 20 feet in length and the trick is to grab it by the head and try to keep it from wrapping around you, according to Outdoor Life. But if a large snake clamps on to an arm or a leg, it instinctively coils around its victim and starts to constrict.

Comey "Covfefe" Cocktails and Other Creative Concoctions

And finally, it was the must-see TV of the week, billed as the SuperBowl of Washington DC with watch parties and drinking games. We are of course referring the televised testimony last week by James Comey before the Senate Intelligence Committee, and watering holes across the country offered special drinks to mark the occasion.

Even though the hearing was in the morning, many bars opened early offering themed beverages like the “Impeach-mint,” “Comey coolers,” and many versions of “Covfefe” cocktails, referring to the president’s cryptic tweet the week before that had the nation guessing as to his meaning. Several pubs offered specials of Russian Vodka and free drinks if the president tweeted during the hearing, which he did not.

It wasn’t just drink, many bars had food pairings on the menu like the “FBI sandwich”— fried chicken breast, bacon and iceberg lettuce in case you were wondering. So whether you watched over a cup of Joe at home or at a pub sipping a Moscow Mule, according to the site Axios, more than 100 million tuned in to watch democracy in action. Lordy, we’ll drink to that.

"Paris Withdrawal: Expect More Asthma." That story and other headlines for the week ending June 4, 2017[ Show/Hide Transcript ]

A Governor Compares Trump to a Child Who Picks Up His Bat and Ball and Goes Home

After Trump announced last week that he would withdraw the U.S. from the Paris Climate Accord, mayors, and governors across the country said they would continue to honor the agreement. Leaders in 187 cities signed a statement one day after the announcement saying they will adopt and honor the commitments in the accord.

The governors of New York, California, and Washington started the call for a "United States Climate Alliance" and invited other states to join. As of air time, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Vermont, Oregon, and Hawaii had joined the growing movement. In a press release, California’s Jerry Brown said that if the President is going to be AWOL in this profoundly important human endeavor, then his state and others will step up. As reported in Scientific American, Governor John Hickenlooper of Colorado likened Trump to a child playing baseball, who finding a call has gone against him, picks up the bat and ball and goes home.

The movement by state and local governments to abide by the Paris Accord is also supported by Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, who said that his country was disappointed by the withdrawal of the federal government implying it was not the people of the U.S. who wanted to exit. According to the UK Independent, Trudeau also has been quietly reaching out to U.S. governors to discuss collaboration on climate change.

Climate Change Has Been a Driver of Increased Asthma Rates in the U.S. as Plants Pollinate Earlier and Longer

There is much concern that global warming will lead to serious public health effects. Here’s one example: as the planet heats it stirs up more allergens that can cause asthma. According to Vox, over the past 30 years, the percentage of Americans with the disease has more than doubled and climate change has been a significant driver of that trend.

An allergist in California said that plants are starting to pollinate earlier and continuing to do so longer. In Memphis, Tennessee, the asthma capital of the U.S., the disease is the single most common reason for admissions to a local children’s hospital.

But beside asthma there are other health effects from our warming planet: it will increase the spread of infections like yellow fever, Zika, dengue, and Lyme disease. And researchers say it will lead to more heart disease.

One critical point: the public health problems from climate change are a major social justice issue with people of color affected more—think Flint, Michigan, and Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans. As reported in Essence, one in six African American children have asthma, and as the magazine notes: remember on the campaign trail, Trump asked black people "what do you have to lose" by voting for him? The answer now may be clearer: the health and wellbeing of their communities.

As Hurricane Season Begins Federal Agencies Tasked to Respond Are Leaderless

Last week ushered in the official beginning of hurricane season, but currently three of the most important agencies that deal with the storms are without leaders. NOAA runs the National Hurricane Center which forecasts and tracks storms. Trump has still not appointed anyone to run NOAA, and the Hurricane Center is without a director.

When a hurricane is approaching, the center alerts those responsible for organizing evacuations and other preparations. And if a storm hits, the agency that deals with the aftermath of hurricanes, FEMA, is also without a leader. In late April Trump did appoint a former Alabama official to run it, but the Senate has not yet acted on the appointment.

The absence of leadership at these critical agencies is alarming. Lt. General Russel Honoré told CNN that the situation should "scare the hell out of everybody." The general coordinated military relief efforts after Hurricane Katrina. NOAA and FEMA have said that there are career staff in place who will continue to perform the core responsibilities. But, Honoré said that the government has been preaching to people to prepare for hurricanes, but has not itself yet prepared by picking people to lead the agencies.

Two Thirds of Yemen’s 27 Million People Have No Access to Safe Drinking Water

The United Nations warns that Yemen is teetering on the verge of an unforgiving humanitarian catastrophe. On Wednesday, last week the UN said that more and more children in Yemen are dying every day from preventable causes such as malnutrition and cholera. In the last three days of May, 10,000 new cholera case were reported.

The country barely has functional water treatment plants. Sewage and garbage are collecting in residential areas and contaminating water sources. Two thirds of the country’s 27 million people have no access to safe drinking water.

Yemen has been embroiled in civil war for two years, with Saudis supporting the government against the Iran-backed Houthi rebels. The conflict may intensify, as the U.S. recently announced a military weapons deal of 110 billion dollars with the Saudis. In the meantime, the cholera outbreak and the lack of food and safe water are devastating people caught in the crossfire.

A Candidate for Parliament in the UK Is Apologizing for Comments about Water Contamination

And finally, British voters are heading to the polls on Thursday, June 8th, and one candidate for Parliament in the west Midlands seat of Telford has a warning about the consequences of water contamination. Susan King, running in the Liberal Democratic Party, says that all pollution is having an effect on our DNA and that the population is changing and evolving.

But while you may think Ms. King is concerned about things like cancer-causing contaminants or lead, she says water pollution is causing something else: homosexuality. That's right, she says the water is turning people gay, in particular she said that there are a lot of feminizing hormones in the water supply from pharmaceuticals that affect people’s sexuality.

King who has twice run for the same seat and lost, added that chemicals used in making plastics and children's toys are affected. She said she has done a lot of research connected with water quality. While there are studies showing that some male fish had female egg cells growing in their testes, it's is a long way from there to conclude human sexual preference is affected by water contamination.

After public reaction, King apologized for any offense caused, but did not express any change in her views. According to The UK Independent, King is not expected to pose a serious challenge to take the seat which has been held by a female member of the conservative party. But no doubt, Ms. King’s supporters take her seriously when she says, there must be something in the water.

"Water Protectors Were Targets of Counterterrorism Tactics." That story and other headlines for the week ending May 28, 2017[ Show/Hide Transcript ]

Water Protectors Treated As Terrorists

Activists and water protectors, who protested the Dakota Access Pipeline were targeted by a private mercenary and security firm that used counterterrorism techniques to track people and to counter the activists’ positions. Documents leaked to the online news organization, The Intercept, reveal that Energy Transfer Partners, owner of the pipeline, hired a North Carolina Security firm known as TigerSwan. The firm surveilled protesters, and infiltrated anti-pipeline groups. The private security firm, also worked closely with local and state law enforcement and the FBI. It provided live feeds of protesters’ movements to law enforcement headquartered in Bismark, North Dakota.

Beginning in April 2016, indigenous people organized against the construction of the pipeline. It was widely criticized as being a threat to the Standing Rock Sioux Reservation water supply and native cultural. Some also protested the pipeline as contributing to global warming from the use of fossil fuels. Documents obtained by The Intercept, show that DAPL protesters were viewed as insurgents driven by ideology and a strong religious component. TigerSwan briefings compared them to jihadists fighters.

TigerSwan infiltrated activist circles and protest camps using fake names and identities according to the Intercept. The security firm discussed how to exploit rifts between natives and nonnatives, and disagreements among different tribal groups. TigerSwan also conducted social media and PR efforts to drive the message that the promoters of the pipeline were the good guys.

The counterterrorism measures were not limited to actions in North Dakota, but were also implemented in Iowa, South Dakota and even Chicago. In reaction to The Intercept reporting, Adam Mason, of the organization Iowa Citizens for Community Improvement told the Des Moines Register that this is a perfect example where you see law enforcement and public safety officials working together for big corporations to the detriment of everyday people.

Abandoned Coal Mines May Find New Life

As the burning of coal in the US and around the world is waning, abandoned mines may play an important role in generating renewable electricity.

The plan is to store water in old mines, and pump it to surface ponds using renewable energy. When demand for electricity increases the water is released back in to the mines passing through turbines generating power. The water would stay in the mines until there is enough excess power to pump it back up to reservoirs. The mines and holding ponds essentially act as batteries storing the potential electricity. The idea of pumped hydropower is not new, but using renewable solar and wind to get the water up from mines below to holding ponds is.

The Wall Street Journal reports that a system being developed at a former mine in Germany may power up to 500 thousand homes, and similar projects are being considered in Appalachia and California. The idea is so attractive that a Republican state senator in Virginia was able to get legislation passed that encourages the transformation of mine tunnels into storage facilities for renewable energy.

Global Warming’s Effect on Zzzzzzzzs

Is anxiety making it difficult for you to sleep at night? Well, we don’t want to make it harder for you to catch some z’s, but a new study published in Science Advances concludes that getting a good night’s rest will be more difficult because of climate change.

Our bodies prepare for sleep by reducing core temperatures which remain low throughout the night, and then rise again before waking. But as many know, especially those without air conditioning, higher air temperatures result in a poor night’s sleep.

Nick Obradovich, of Harvard and the lead researcher, told the Los Angeles Times that if the entire United States experienced a warming of 1 degree Celsius, it would likely result in 9 million nights of insufficient sleep per month. The effects of lack of sleep on health could be significant as it is associated with heart disease, diabetes and poorer mental performance.

Massive Pulse Bends Earth’s Crust

A gigantic mass of ice and water moved through Greenland in 2012 that was so enormous it bent the earth’s crust. The massive surge moved over four months and traveled 15 miles until it reached the sea. It was detected by scientists at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory and published in Geophysical Research Letters recently. You can think of the event as a huge wave moving under the glacier, but scientists don’t know how much of it was made of water or ice.

As the wave passed, a GPS sensor on rocky ground moved 15 millimeters due to the mass pushing down on earth’s bedrock. As reported in the Washington Post, the phenomenon took place at the end of a melting in which most of Greenland was covered with liquid water. Some of the melting water may have flooded beneath the ice sheet and then pulsed out through a glacier to the sea.

A Sinking Feeling at Mar-a-Lago

And finally, a 16-square-foot sinkhole appeared in front of Donald Trump’s Mar-a-Lago resort in Florida last week. Cue the metaphors. Social media seized the opportunity tweeting that the president was finally "draining the swamp," and that the hole was "tremendous and the greatest ever" to the less gracious comparisons of the cave-in as a symbol of his sinking popularity.

But as often the case with this administration, there’s a twist. Sinkholes are a common occurrence in Florida because the state sits atop porous limestone. But according to a report by the Huffington Post, Mar-a-Lago is underlain by a different formation made up of rock and shells, and less likely to subside. And as it turns out this sinkhole was caused by the collapse of an 8-foot-long section of storm water pipe according to local officials.

Most water lines in the U.S. are at least 50 years old and many mains in urban areas date to the early 1900s, according to the American Water Works Association, which told the AP that "the replacement era" has arrived. One way to get the president’s attention on the need to act on an infrastructure bill might be to sink it in his front yard.

But for this administration, the sinkhole was probably more of an unwelcome metaphor given that many Americans think there’s a lot more going on beneath the surface that’s worth digging into.

"Farmworkers Harmed by Trump’s EPA." That story and other headlines for the week ending May 21, 2017[ Show/Hide Transcript ]

The Obama Administration Was Planning to Ban the Chemical that Harmed Farmworkers in California

About two weeks ago, 50 farmworkers near Bakersfield, California were harvesting cabbage when they were exposed to a pesticide that the Obama Administration wanted to ban but Trump’s EPA has allowed. 12 workers complained of nausea and vomiting. One of them fainted. The local fire department was called, and decontaminated those who had not already left. One worker had to go to the hospital.

The local newspaper reported that the neighboring field had been sprayed the night before with the pesticide known as Vulcan which contains the active ingredient chlorpyrifos. The owner of the farm that employed the injured workers told the Guardian that he thinks the chemical should be banned.

And so did the Obama Administration. Last November the EPA concluded, among other things, that there were risks to workers using the pesticide and slated it to be banned. The Agency expressed the worry that the chemical might drift into schools and homes. But in March the Trump administration disagreed rejecting the conclusions that EPA scientists had made and reversed that decision. Administrator Scott Pruitt said that the agency would what he called sound science in decision making.

Chlorpyrifos is made by Dow Chemical, and about three months before the ban was reversed by Pruitt, the company gave $1 million to help pay for Trump’s inauguration, according to the Center for Public Integrity. And in December last year the CEO of Dow was named to head the American Manufacturing Council - the main private sector advisory committee to the Secretary of Commerce.

Bottle Caps, Toy Soldiers, and Doll Heads Are Turning Up on this Pacific Island Without Any People

Henderson Island in the middle of South Pacific Ocean has recently been found to be among the world’s most polluted places almost entirely due to human made plastics. What’s even more astonishing—there are no human inhabitants there.

Two researchers from the University of Tasmania concluded that the density of plastic debris was the highest recorded anywhere in the world. The scientists believe that the remote island and others like it act as sinks where plastics that wind up in the ocean are accumulated. The debris includes plastic containers, doll heads, toy soldiers, and bottle caps. There was waste from every continent except Antarctica.

Jennifer Lavers, one of the scientists told The Atlantic there’s an area they called the garbage patch, where they could not put a foot down without stepping on a bottle cap. The sheer volume took her breath away for all the wrong reasons. The team estimated the island has almost 40 million pieces of man-made junk.

All of the plastic on the island is a tiny percentage of the world’s production. The amount of discarded material there would take only 2 seconds to be manufactured today. It would be nearly impossible to clean up the island as it is just too remote.

An Engineer in India Has Come Up with a Genius Substitute for Disappearing Glaciers

An engineer in northern India has come up with an innovative solution to replace disappearing natural glaciers with simple man-made ice towers that store water. In the past, the remote, high-desert area of Ladakh has relied on the glaciers for 80% of the region’s water but they have been melting due to global warming.

In the spring when everyone needs water there have been acute shortages. To store water during the winter, mechanical engineer Sonam Wangchuck decided to create ice stupas or towers, according to Aljazeera. He takes a pipe and places it in a mountain where underground streams flow even when it is freezing at the surface.

The pipe is naturally pressurized due to gravity and the water flows out and up into the cold air and freezes as it comes down especially during the night when temperatures can reach minus twenty or thirty degrees. The result is an ice stupa or pyramid that stores frozen water during the winter and melts when needed in the spring. The ice towers, which can reach heights of 60 or 70 feet, are beautiful as well as functional.

Global Warming Sent Water into Arctic Seed Vault

Last week it was learned that water from melting permafrost had breached the facility that protects a collection of the world’s most precious seeds in case of future disasters. The Global Seed Vault is an underground storage of 5,000 species of crop seeds located inside a mountain above the arctic circle in Norway.

Water gushed into the access tunnel to the vault due to unseasonably high temperatures, according to the Guardian. None of the seeds were damaged, and the leaked water froze into ice. A spokesperson for the facility said that it was like a glacier when people went in.

An American expert who helped create the vault told Popular Science that the facility was not meant to be water tight at its front, and that water coming in doesn’t go very far. He added that the seeds are probably safe. The Norwegian vault is a backup to seed collections by other countries, but now managers are worried that last season’s warm temperatures may be repeated as global warming continues. So they are now taking measures to waterproof the tunnel into the vault and build drains into the mountain to take melting water away.

Achill Island, Ireland, Residents "Shore" Are Joyful to See Return of Their Lost Treasure

And finally, talk about a "sea change." What happened on the west coast of Ireland recently was truly transformational. In 1984, a series of strong storms washed away a beach on Achill Island, leaving nothing but bare rock and tide pools. It was devastating to the area popular with tourists for its stunning landscapes.

Then, 33 years later—a miracle happened. In what was described as a “freak tide” thousands of tons of sand were deposited on the shoreline. Residents have a ‘new’ 300-metre long beach and hopes are high that the golden sands will help attract tourists back to the picturesque hamlet. Indeed, the tourist office is reporting “gridlock” with visitors flocking to see Ireland’s newest attraction.

Beach erosion happens when waves and currents remove sand from shoreline. Storm waves carry the sand offshore, depositing the sediment in sandbars. But Bob Guza of the Scripps Institute told the International Business Times that what’s surprising about the beach in Ireland is how rapidly it returned. Usually, he said, if sand comes back, it does so slowly over time, not in the span of 10 days like it did on Achill Island.

And, it may or may not be the same sand that was originally on the beach. Either way, the tourist office and locals hope the new beach will stick around, at least for the summer—and that any new tide that shows up will turn in their favor.

"When You Smell Pig Waste, Just Think Bacon." That story and other headlines for the week ending May 14, 2017[ Show/Hide Transcript ]

The Senate Upheld an Obama-Era Methane Rule, but the Interior Department Said No Thanks, We’ll Make Our Own Rule

In a surprise move last week, the Senate voted 51 to 49 not to repeal the Obama-era rules limiting methane emissions from oil and gas extraction on federal lands. Methane is a major contributor to greenhouse gases and the regulations are meant to control leaks and flaring. The Bureau of Land Management has said that about 460 billion cubic feet of natural gas were either flared from public and tribal lands or leaked onto them between 2009 and 2015. That’s enough gas to supply more than 6 million homes a year.

Three Republicans joined all Democrats to uphold the rule, but the Department of the Interior is planning to roll it back anyway. The Department said in a statement that the Senate vote doesn’t impact the Trump Administration’s commitment to spurring investment in energy development and smart regulatory protections. But it may be years before any roll back could be put into effect.

Thawing Alaskan Tundra Is Releasing More Carbon into the Atmosphere Faster than Expected

On the subject of greenhouse gasses, a new study suggests warming temperatures in the Alaskan Arctic are leading to increased emissions of methane and CO2. Researchers found that carbon dioxide emissions from the tundra have increased more than 70% since 1975 during fall months because soils are taking longer to freeze.

Plants in the Alaskan tundra absorb massive amounts of CO2 in the spring and summer growing season, but in the Fall and winter they decompose releasing CO2. Because the frozen soils, often referred to as permafrost, fail to refreeze as early as they once did the extended decomposition time is adding more greenhouse gas to the atmosphere. The researchers noted that computer models predicted this occurrence, but they did not think it would happen for another 50 to 100 years. One of the study’s co-authors said that if the trend they saw in Alaska occurs in Siberia and Canada, it would have a big effect on the global carbon budget.

North Carolina Legislator Urges People Suffering from Noxious Pig Waste Odors to Imagine Smelling Ham and Eggs Instead

Some residents of North Carolina are suffering from headaches, gagging and other health problems they say are from pig feces and urine. The state allows hog farmers to spray the waste into the air over fields close to where people live. And about 500 residents have sued one of the state’s largest pig producers, Murphy-Brown. But the industry is resisting.

Last week lawmakers in the state passed legislation that restricts how much residents can collect in damages from hog farms. One of the bill’s sponsors dismissed claims about smell and health problems saying at a hearing, "Is there some odor? Yes. But I would like you to close your eyes and imagine how ham and sausage and eggs and fried chicken smell."

Democracy Now reports that animal waste spray comes from the hogs’ housing. There are slats in the floors and the pig feces and urine fall through, and then is piped into open-air lagoons. From there it is sprayed onto fields.

Environmental groups claim that the spraying is a social justice issue because the pig farms are concentrated in low-income and minority communities. The bill recently passed by the Republican controlled legislature would bar people from receiving compensation for damages related to health, quality of life, enjoyment of property, or lost income. The Democratic governor vetoed the legislation but the legislature quickly overrode his veto.

The Dakota Access Pipeline Isn’t Operational Yet But It Already Has Sprung a Leak

The Dakota Access Pipeline has not started to operate yet, but it’s already experienced a spill. And while the 84 gallons of oil that leaked in North Dakota is not a large quantity relative to other spills, it has outraged local indigenous groups who have fought the project.

The leak was not made public by either Energy Transfer Partners, the pipeline operator, or government officials. It was discovered by a local reporter for the Aberdeen News. State officials decided not to make information about the leak public because they determined it did not threaten health, drinking water or a fishery, according to the Associated Press.

Oil and gas spills are common in North Dakota. An analysis recently done by KCET in California found that in the year ending May 1, on average there was a spill about every 12 hours. Some of those were as small as 20 gallons, but others were large—up to nearly 17,000.

While State officials said they were happy with the response of the company, Dave Archambault, Standing Rock Sioux tribal chairman, said that these spills are going to be nonstop and that nobody listened to the tribes’ objections and nobody wants to listen, because they're driven by money and greed.

It Was Not a Typical Beach Day in Southern California

And finally, “Attention in the water. This is the Orange County Sheriffs Department. Be advised State Parks has asked us to make an announcement. You are paddleboarding next to approximately 15 great white sharks. They are advising that you exit the water in a calm manner. The sharks are as close as the surf line.”

That was what swimmers heard from a helicopter loudspeaker hovering over a beach in southern California last Wednesday—one of three warnings issued along the coast that day, according to the LA Times. So if you’re in the Southland at the beach should you panic? According to Chris Lowe, of Cal State, Long Beach—don’t. He told Live Science that the sharks being seen in the area are not bloodthirsty predators, but rather a group of "toddlers" likely moving into shallow waters where there's plenty of their favorite food - stingrays.

Many shark species are in decline because of bycatch, shark fishing tournaments, habitat destruction and the shark fin trade. So, in fact, we should celebrate having these sightings rather than freak out. Andrew Nosal, of the Scripps Institute, says aggregating great whites actually indicate a healthy local marine environment. He adds, that when ecosystems decline, the top predators are usually the first to go.

Increased numbers of great whites in the Pacific are being attributed to conservation measures enacted to protect marine mammals. Adult great whites love seals and sea lions whose numbers are up thanks to marine protection areas. As far as the baby sharks, Lowe says they may be keeping swimmers safer by eating stingrays, which can cause a painful injury to someone playing in the surf.

That’s “fin”tastic news.

"Pay Your Water Bill or Lose Your House." That story and other headlines for the week ending May 7, 2017[ Show/Hide Transcript ]

There Is a One in Four Chance That Tap Water in Homes Across the Country Is Either Unsafe to Drink or Has Not Been Properly Monitored for Contamination.

The National Resources Defense Council released a report last week showing that there is a one in four chance that the water in homes across the country is either unsafe to drink or has not been properly monitored for contamination.

Previous reports have focused on local concerns like those in Flint, but this new study was nationwide in scope analyzing data collected by the EPA. The study concluded that regardless of which political group controls the government, enforcement of the Safe Drinking Water Act is virtually non-existent. The NRDC analysis shows that in 2015 there were more than 80,000 infringements of the act, which included failures to inform authorities about contamination.

Mark Edwards of Virginia Tech, who helped find contamination in Flint, told the New York Times that he agreed with NRDC’s conclusion that the government has not done enough to enforce drinking water safety regulations.

Conflicts of Interest Force EPA Administrator to Recuse Himself from Cases He Brought Against His Own Agency

In related news, EPA administrator, Scott Pruitt, has removed himself from a dozen important cases including challenges to the Obama Administration’s Clean Power Plan, and the Clean Water Rule. Pruitt sued the EPA over those policies while he was Oklahoma Attorney General.

In an internal memo obtained by EENews, Pruitt wrote last week that he will not participate in any cases in which the State of Oklahoma is a party. Democrats and environmentalists have criticized Pruitt ever since he was nominated for having significant conflicts of interest because of the numerous suits he filed against the agency he now leads. But before he acknowledged the problem and removed himself, Pruitt had already taken some steps to roll back the Clean Power Plan and to review the rule about which bodies of water are subject to EPA regulation.

People in Flint and Baltimore Could Lose Their Homes Because of Unpaid Water Bills

More than 8,000 residents of Flint, Michigan received notices recently warning them that the city would start the process to take their homes if they did not pay their water bills. The city said it would start foreclosing in February next year. Some residents have bills close to $1,000.

Since the lead contamination was found in 2014, the water in Flint is still not safe to drink, according to local officials and Michigan has ended a program that helped residents pay their bills. Some think that families should not have to pay for water they still cannot drink, and should not lose their homes over this crisis caused by state government. The city is in a bind as the mayor admits. But there are too many uncollected bills for water and sewer services which will stress the city financially.

Meanwhile, about 1,000 homeowners in Baltimore who have not paid their water bills face eventual sale of their homes.

The efforts of cities to collect unpaid water bills brings up the issue of how to provide what the UN deems a human right, but also pay for the cost of treatment and delivery. One suggestion appearing at Ensia.com is to treat water like public education. Schools teach pre-college age students without charging them or their families. The system is funded through taxes that are spread across a local or state base. Something similar could be done with water, argues Daniel Moss of Water Commons. But providers also need to encourage conservation while providing water to those who can’t afford it.

A Firm in Abu Dhabi Is Floating an Idea to Cope with Water Scarcity in the Middle East. If Nothing Else They Hope It Will Be Good for Tourism

Water scarcity in the Middle East is leading to some "innovative" plans by at least one company. A firm in Abu Dhabi is planning to start towing icebergs from Antarctica to the United Arab Emirates. Gulf News reports that the company has run the idea through simulators and says towing an iceberg could take about a year.

Plans are to start the project in 2018. The company says the average iceberg, if there is such a thing, holds up to 20 billion gallons of fresh water, or enough for one million people for five years. After a year-long voyage the bergs would be anchored off shore, and harvested for processing into what they will call pure polar ice water.

The company also claims the project would be good for tourism drawing gawkers to see icebergs floating off the Arabian Peninsula. The idea is not new having been considered in the 1970s, but at that time the price was too high and technical problems too great. Another idea being floated by the company—build a pipeline under the sea to bring river water from Pakistan to the Emirates, about 750 miles.

People Around the World Took a Crack at this Guessing Game

Nenana Ice Classic Real Climate And finally, what do kids in Tucson, Arizona have in common with folks in Nenana, Alaska? They both play guessing games about the weather—wagers that could score winners cold hard cash. Cold as in "ice cold." Contestants all around the world try to guess the exact time that the ice will break up on the Tanana River in Alaska. Whoever gets closest could win the $267,000 jackpot.

So the students in Tucson’s University High School statistics class, who also try to guess the first 100-degree day in their city, took a crack at the ice challenge. But they weren’t simply guessing. Their teachers had them evaluate average temperatures over the years and chart dates of the ice melt—a way to use statistics for real world application.

The winning time is determined when a cable attached to a tripod on the river ice trips a clock on shore when the ice moves. People wait to see the breakup, which has happened as early as April 20th and as late as May 20th.

Gavin Schmidt has been watching too. He’s a climate modeler at NASA and he says the ice break over the 101-year contest clearly illustrates that the planet is warming. On his website at realclimate.org he graphed data showing the long-term trend towards earlier break up and overall warming. 2017 was almost exactly on target—roughly one week earlier than the average breakup date a century ago.

As far as the students, looks like they might have a winner! This year the breakup occurred at exactly 12:00pm on May 1st. Student Madison Manly-Niebel entered 12:01pm, just one minute off. Oh and by the way, according to the National Weather Service, the temperature in Tucson hit 100 on May 4th. The city didn't reach that milestone until June 2nd last year, but it’s better than 1989 when Tucson hit the century mark on April 19th the earliest in recorded history.

"New Study: Sea Level Rise Could Spell Disaster for California." That story and other headlines for the week ending April 30, 2017[ Show/Hide Transcript ]

Climate Marches Occur as Report Predicts Dire Consequences in California from Sea Level Rise

There were about 300 organized climate change marches across the U.S. on Saturday. Coast to coast hundreds of thousands took to the streets demanding action on climate change. A common sign marchers held: "The oceans are rising and so are we"—a timely message given a new report about the effects of sea level rise on California.

The state's Ocean Protection Council warns that coastal sea levels could rise as much as 10 feet in areas by the end of the century. That’s because for every foot of global sea-level rise caused by melting ice on West Antarctica, the ocean along California’s coast will rise approximately 1.25 feet.

Some specific predictions include: Malibu's Broad Beach will become a sliver of sand; coastal power plants, especially nuclear ones will need to be fortified; coastal roadways from north to south will be abandoned and relocated inland; and more than 42,000 homes will be completely underwater.

The Long Beach Press Telegram summarizes the potential future: crippled economies, compromised public safety, submerged infrastructure, and a forced retreat inland.

Trump’s Border Wall Could Cause Flooding—and Violate an International Treaty

The border wall idea that the new president persists in pursuing has many problems, among them—its effect on water and an international treaty. The Mexican government recently raised objections to the wall claiming it might increase the likelihood of flooding by temporarily trapping water and debris behind it—acting like a dam.

As reported by NPR, the US and Mexico signed a treaty in 1970 that lays out the precise border between the two. It also provides that both U.S. and Mexican officials on the International Boundary and Water Commission, must agree if one side wants to build any structure that would affect the flow of the Rio Grande or its floodwaters. Antonio Rascón, chief Mexican engineer on the Commission said in an exclusive interview with NPR that some border wall proposals he has seen would violate the treaty, and that Mexico would not stand for that and could seek arbitration in the World Court.

California Vows to Fight Back as Trump Tries to Open Offshore Areas to Oil and Gas Exploration

Last Friday, Trump signed another executive order, this one opening offshore areas to oil and gas drilling. Former President Obama had protected areas in the Gulf of Mexico after the BP Horizon disaster. Besides allowing drilling there, Trump’s new order could lift restrictions on large areas of the Pacific and Atlantic. However, the order comes at a time when demand for off shore leases is near its lowest point in years, according to Reuters. In California, the Governor, the state attorney General, and top lawmakers promised to fight any new drilling.

And also last week, Trump ordered the Interior Department to review the orders of the previous three presidents that set aside land and water under the Antiquities Act. Interior Secretary Ryan Zinke said that somewhere along the way, the Antiquities Act became the tool of political advocacy rather than public interest.

The remark left some scratching their heads as 16 presidents have used it since 1906 to protect areas such as the Grand Canyon before it became a National Park. But, Republicans criticized Obama the most because he protected more land than any other president. They bemoan the inability to develop those lands, particularly for oil and gas. Trump’s order may threaten 24 national monuments.

Canadian Lakes Mimic Ancient Oceans and May Help Scientists Understand How Life on Earth Evolved

Some lakes in the Boreal Shield ecozone of Canada bear a chemical resemblance to earth’s oceans of about 2.5 billion years ago. Ancient oceans were rich in iron, low on sulphur and free of oxygen. A new study published in Scientific Reports details how the lakes have no oxygen at their bottoms at times, just like ancient waters where different types of microorganisms can thrive.

The study is important because scientists say the lakes can give more clues as to how life evolved. The research may also show how microbes help form algal blooms that can shut down water treatment plants.

Human Pollution Is Reaching Waters Hundreds of Meters Underground

And another study out last week research is showing that groundwater that has been below the surface for tens of thousands of years is vulnerable to human pollution. Researchers found that pollutants such as pesticides and salts can percolate hundreds of meters underground.

And they also saw elevated traces of a radioactive hydrogen isotope spread during nuclear bomb tests, but at levels that are not dangerous. Previously, scientists thought that these deep waters were nearly immune from pollution. One of the coauthors of the study told Science News that people can’t just drill deep and expect to escape surface contamination.

California’s Drought Ends with Creepy-Crawly Consequences

superbloom And finally, after its worst drought in 1,200 years, this winter California had one of its wettest on record. Hillsides are green, reservoirs are at capacity, and rivers are raging. In essence the Golden State is teeming with life again. This is no more evident than in the carpet of flowers everywhere. Plants that went dormant during the dry spell are bursting with color so massive, it’s being called a “Super bloom” and can be seen from space!

All those flowers attract pollinators like birds and bees—but they also attract other critters we may not be as delighted to see: Spiders. According to Brian Brown, of the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, residents can expect a bumper crop of creepy crawlers. He told Southern California Public Radio that moister conditions mean more plant growth, which attracts insects that spiders love to feed on.

That’s obvious by the number of calls he’s getting—especially about one spider in particular: the brown widow. The brown widow is not native to California. It likely came from South Africa on container ships. Like most tourists, it just loves California’s climate. The spider started showing up in Southern California about 15 years ago, taking over the favorite hiding spots of its scary relative: the black widow. He told KPCC that Brown Widows are often found under yard furniture. So if you're in the Los Angeles area and want to know whether you have them—carefully look for webbing under chairs.

But he added don't panic. Brown Widows aren't aggressive. According to the Center for Invasive Species Research at UC Riverside, if you did get bitten the brown widow is not dangerous or deadly. Still. It’s a spider. Breathe and focus on the super blooming flowers.

Photo: Los Padres National Forest, then and now. (Planet Labs)

"Is Dow Looking for a Payback from the Trump Administration?" That story and other headlines for the week ending April 23, 2017[ Show/Hide Transcript ]

The Same Company Building DAPL Just Spilled 2 Million Gallons of Drilling Fluid into Wetlands

The same company that won the approval of the Trump administration to build the Dakota Access Pipeline has spilled more than 2 million gallons of drilling fluids into wetlands in Ohio. Energy Transfer Partners is building a new 700-mile natural gas pipeline, the Rover, that will run across many states. The company spilled fluid containing bentonite, a chemical that is used in kitty litter. It does not break down in water and is used as a drilling lubricant.

Contrary to a company statement that it was not harmful, a spokesperson for the Ohio EPA told the Columbus Dispatch that the discharges affect water chemistry and potentially suffocate fish and other wildlife. The director of the Ohio Chapter of the Sierra Club told the Dispatch that the company has already had two spills in less than a month and they are concerned about what might happen next.

Is Dow Looking for a Payback from the Trump Administration?

Dow Chemical Company contributed $1 million to help underwrite Trump’s inauguration in January, and it’s chairman is a Trump advisor, and now according to the Associated Press the company is asking the administration to set aside studies that show a family of widely used pesticides are harmful to around 1,800 threatened or endangered species.

Dow and two other companies sent requests to Trump cabinet appointees whose agencies are responsible for enforcing the Endangered Species Act based upon biological evaluations by the EPA. It is expected that those agencies will soon make findings on where the highly toxic pesticides can be used.

Dow argues that the EPA did not follow appropriate scientific standards to conclude the pesticides were dangerous to threatened or endangered species. Scott Pruitt the administrator of the EPA has already said he would reverse the Obama administration’s barring of one of the pesticides in question.

Google Does a Search for More Water in South Carolina

Google has had a data farm in Goose Creek, South Carolina, not far from Charleston for five years and it wants to expand, but it needs more water to cool its servers. The company now takes about 4 million gallons a day from a local utility, but that’s not enough.

Google filed an application with the state to draw 1.5 million gallons a day from the aquifer. If approved, it would become the third largest user of groundwater in 3 counties around Charleston. Google’s application is being opposed by not only residents and conservationists but also by water utility officials according to the Charleston Post and Courier. One item of contention: there currently is no charge for the water from the aquifer.

Google’s request has raised the issue of who owns the water under the ground in the Palm Tree State. And as the state’s population is booming, South Carolina is being challenged to plan groundwater rules to determine who can pump, how much and when.

When Google built its plant in South Carolina, it said one of the reasons was cheap water, but the price there has risen faster than gold or real estate in the last 30 years according to a study.

Should States Charge for Groundwater?

The use of ground water by companies is also attracting attention in Michigan. The Detroit Free Press reports that, while Nestle has been the focus of criticism for its request to expand what it takes and sells in plastic bottles, it is not among the largest extractors of groundwater.

That designation goes to drug giant Pfizer Pharmaceutical. In 2015 the drug company’s manufacturing facility near Kalamazoo took nearly 7 billion gallons from the ground essentially for free.

As in South Carolina, companies’ use of groundwater in Michigan has raised the issue of price. A senior fellow at the Brookings Institution, told the Free Press that the UN has recognized water is a human right. But it costs money to deliver water--and people expect it at a low price – much lower than what they pay for cell phones in comparison. However, acute water shortages in the future may lead to public acceptance of tiered pricing with the lowest price based first upon what a family needs and increasing for other users like those who make a profit from the resource.

“I'm Not a Mad Scientist, I'm Absolutely Furious!”

And finally, tens of thousands took to the streets in over 600 cities around the globe to speak up for science. The March for Science, which was planned to coincide with Earth Day, included events “pole to pole” with groups marching from Greenland to Antarctica and covering all 7 continents.

The main event was in Washington DC, but where we are in Denver, a huge crowd turned out to combat what many said was an assault on science by the Trump administration. That’s what brought Josh from Fort Collins to the march who said, "We’re just here showing support for government funded science given all the cuts that are proposed in Washington D.C. right now."

Josh is a physician who works for a government funded lab at Colorado State University which would be directly affected by Trump’s proposed budget that would slash around $7 billion in science funding to the National Institutes of Health. Many came to the march to speak out against an administration that seems anti-science and that denies climate change such as when EPA administrator Scott Pruitt disputed that CO2 is a primary driver of global warming. To Jane Good of Denver, that’s unacceptable and dangerous. She said she was "outraged that choices are being made that will change my life forever and my kid’s life forever because of a lack of education or possibly a lack of caring of what’s right for all of us."

Trump has yet to nominate administrators for NASA and NOAA and doesn’t have his own science adviser, according to the Guardian.

The marchers were a serious group, but they haven’t lost their sense of humor. They carried posters and placards to sometimes slyly—and sometimes directly get their message across, like:

“Less invasions, more equations.”

“I’m not a mad scientist… I’m absolutely furious!”

“Got Polio? Yeah me neither. Thank a scientist.”

“It’s so bad, even introverts are here.”

But the sign we’ll take to heart for the days and weeks ahead read: “Think like a proton—stay positive.” So we’ll do our best to remain optimistic and inspired and see you next week.

"Sewage and Sea Level Rise Plague Paradise." That story and other headlines for the week ending April 16, 2017[ Show/Hide Transcript ]

Environmental Group Claims Dow and Shell Used Farms as Dumping Grounds

California officials are expected to establish limits on a chemical pollutant that has been found in many water systems. About 28 years ago the California Water Resources Control Board detected the contaminant, known as TCP in drinking water systems. But neither the EPA nor the state set a limit on how much of the chemical could be in tap water.

TCP was used as a paint remover and a degreasing agent, and was also an ingredient in pesticides made by Dow and Shell that were widely used more than 30 years ago. TCP is a carcinogen that does not break down in soil, and can instead migrate into water.

The Environmental Working Group released a report last week showing that the state has detected TCP at higher than the expected limits in more than 90 California public water systems primarily in the San Joaquin Valley, which supplies much of the US with nuts and vegetables.

The environmental group claims that the TCP should never have been in the pesticides in the first place, because it had no role in killing the pests it was intended to control. In law suits filed by communities in the San Joaquin Valley documents obtained show that the companies left the chemicals in pesticides to avoid the costs of proper disposal. In effect the companies were using farmers to get rid of toxic chemicals, according to a spokesperson for the environmental organization.

Shell and Dow have paid multi-million dollar settlements to some communities for water filtration systems, but dozens of cases are still pending.

This Train Runs So Clean You Can Breathe Its Emissions.

A French company has made a train that looks just like a typical one running on diesel, but instead of running on dirty fuels it uses hydrogen and is pollution free. Last month it was successfully tested in Germany.

Fuel cells on top of the train combine hydrogen and oxygen generating electricity which is stored in lithium ion batteries. The only emissions from the train are steam and water making it much more environmentally friendly. The train’s project manager told CNN Tech that the steam is so clean you can breathe it in.

The Germans are impressed enough by the test runs that they have ordered 60 trains from the French firm. Each two-car train requires a 200 pound tank of hydrogen and can travel up to 500 miles a day at nearly 90 miles per hour. Another benefit: the train is nearly noiseless but for the sound of the wheels and rushing air.

This Vacation Destination Has Problems Underfoot—and Climate Change Is Going to Make Them Worse

Two reports from the Aloha state this week.

More than 3,000 cesspools have been closed in Hawaii since 2005. But as of last year there were still nearly 90,000 in the state. Cesspools collect and discharge untreated raw sewage into the ground allowing pathogens and harmful chemicals to pollute groundwater, streams and the ocean. They are more widely used in Hawaii than any other state according to the EPA. But one operator that was supposed to close its cesspools a long time ago and did not—the US Navy.

Recently the Navy agreed with the EPA to close three large-capacity cesspools on Oahu. The service had closed 6 others. The Navy will pay a fine of almost $100,000.

Groundwater supplies 99 percent of all domestic water in Hawaii, and it may be threatened by an additional problem—rising levels caused by climate change. As sea levels rise, the potential exists for urban areas to flood by water coming up from below the ground.

A computer model developed by researchers at the University of Hawaii at Manoa shows that real estate, roads and tourist attractions could be severely affected. And because the water will rise from the ground, no seawalls will protect Honolulu or Waikiki.

The study found that levels in some places, are already two feet below the ground at high tide. And researchers confirmed that almost 90 percent of the cesspools being used are likely already inundated.

Water from Air May Become Reality

Much attention was focused last week on the development of a new device that can pull water vapor out of thin air. Researchers at MIT, using materials created at the University of California Berkeley, have developed a water harvester that can produce H2O out of the air in even arid climates.

In testing over a 12-hour period the solar powered device was able to produce about 3 quarts of water on an MIT rooftop. To put it simply the appliance pulls water vapor out of the air at night and turns it into liquid during the day.

The scientists working on the project say that homes even in the driest parts of the world may soon have the devices which could help billions of people. The technology developed by UC Berkeley has other possible uses including the potential to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

Thai Elephants Spray Jumbo-Sized Portion of Good Luck

water festival And finally, it’s the Buddhist New Year, and in Thailand, it’s a time when people head out of cities to see friends and family and practice a host of solemn traditions. Rituals like cleaning images of the Buddha, washing the hands and feet of elders, offering food to monks—gestures meant to symbolize purification ahead of the new year.

The holiday also includes the sweet gesture of sprinkling water on loved ones to send wishes for a year filled with blessings—and if needed, to wash away sins and evil energy.

But these days in Thailand, that gentle splash has turned into all out dousing. Residents arm themselves with water guns and buckets to participate in what’s now called the "world's biggest water-fight." Rowdy revelers flood the streets to drench each other in a party that goes on for days. Some even make the pilgrimage to Thailand's old capital city of Ayutthaya where they can have the 'privilege' of being sprayed with water by trained elephants for a 'jumbo-sized' portion of good luck.

The New Year holiday happens during Thailand’s hot and dry season so welcomed by many as relief from the sweltering heat, but that doesn’t mean the country’s military government isn’t sweating it. Since taking power in a 2014 coup, they’ve tried to restore what they see as traditional Thai values that have been corrupted by outside, Western influences. They’ve instituted bans on skimpy clothing and restrictions on alcohol.

By all accounts, images of thousands often dressed in floral shirts—or less—enjoying street parties, means the government’s attempt to 'pour cold water' on festivities is getting 'drowned' out by people focused on fun.

"How to ‘Handel’ Coastal Erosion." That story and other headlines for the week ending April 9, 2017
[ Show/Hide Transcript ]

Pesticides Linked to Bee Decline Found in Drinking Water

The controversial pesticides known as neonicotinoids have been found in tap water in two systems in Iowa. USGS and the University of Iowa conducted a study and found only trace amounts, but it is the first time they have been detected after water has been treated for drinking. Scientists are not certain of the effects of neonics on humans, but research has shown they are linked to declining bee populations.

Pruitt, Ignoring EPA Science, Overturns Obama Ban on a Chemical Affecting Children’s Brain Development

And there is other concerning news about another pesticide. Environmental groups have sued the Trump administration over its support of a compound known as chlorphyrifos. The Obama administration had recommended a ban on the pesticide which is used on many crops including corn, broccoli and strawberries.

But Scott Pruitt, the new administrator of the EPA, ignored conclusions by experts in his own agency, and reversed the ban. Pruitt said that the EPA is returning to use of—what he called—sound science in decision-making. In stark contrast to Pruitt, Paul Towers, with the Pesticide Action Network said, "we know [this pesticide] can have a profound impact on children’s brain architecture and their lifelong learning."

Gorsuch: Good or Bad for the Environment?

Now that Neil Gorsuch has been confirmed as the next Supreme Court Justice, many water protectors and environmentalists are worried about how he will decide cases involving pollution. Gorsuch who has lived in Boulder, Colorado, skis and fishes, so one might think he would be concerned about environmental issues.

But that may not be accurate. In prior rulings Gorsuch has indicated that in some cases organizations like the Sierra Club will likely find it more difficult to get into court. In a case in which a group of fishermen and hunters sued the Forest Service for allowing motorcycles on trails, Gorsuch ruled they would not be injured and therefore could not sue.

But, Gorsuch did rule in favor people who had sued Dow Chemical and Rockwell over damages suffered from a former nuclear weapons plant near Denver. He voted to uphold a verdict of almost 1 billion dollars against the companies.

One of the major concerns is that Gorsuch will not defer to federal agencies, like the EPA when it interprets environmental laws. Gorsuch has shown that he is not a big fan of allowing agencies to interpret laws passed by congress.

While the jury may still be out on Gorsuch’s commitment to the environment, it is predictable that environmental and green groups will themselves find it harder to get in front of a jury.

We May Have Passed the Tipping Point on CO2 Emissions and that Means Humans Will Have to Adapt to Extreme Heat We’ve Never Experienced

If we continue to add more carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, it’s possible that life on earth will have to adapt to levels of extreme heat that the human have never experienced. That’s according to a new study by Scientists at Southampton University. They found that human’s use of fossil fuels is warming the planet at a rate higher than expected.

While some of the disastrous effects may not occur for a couple hundred years there is concern that we may have passed the tipping point where there’s not much that can be done. Science World Report notes that since 1960, there had been an incredible 30 percent growth of CO2 in the atmosphere.

And by the middle of this century, the new report says that, if our use of fossil fuels goes unabated, then we will witness levels of carbon in the atmosphere not seen since about 50 million years ago. The problem is that if warming continues, there is no way to predict how are planet will react. Geologic evidence for the past 500 million years gives us no clues.

And if that isn’t enough to freak you out, another study published last week theorized that the Arctic Ocean is changing fundamentally. The study published in the journal Science shows that the declining sea ice in the north is due to warming waters in addition to air temperature rise. The scientists say that the Arctic Ocean is becoming more like the Atlantic in which warm waters are on the top rather than on the bottom. Climate Central notes that sea ice during the Arctic summers could be a thing of the past.

Are You Feeling Like Spring Came Early in Your Area?

You may have felt that spring is arriving earlier. That’s the sense, too in Japan where warmer weather is affecting a cultural icon: cherry blossoms. The date that cherry trees bloom has been tracked for 1,200 years according to the Economist, and there is a disturbing trend.

Records show that almost 200 years ago the cherry trees would spring to life on about April 18th, but more recently the date has been around April 7th. When cherry trees flower is determined by temperatures in February and March and scientist say that warmer weather then is causing the early bloom.

King George I of England Was Slipping in the Polls and Realized He Needed to Do Something Bigly

And finally, in 1717, King George I of England was slipping in the polls and he realized he needed to do something bigly to win back support. His answer? He planned a massive party on the River Thames and invited everybody.

But no PR party is complete without memorable music, so the king tapped George Frideric Handel to compose the score and the result was the famous "Water Music" we know today. It worked. The public swarmed the river and its banks to take in the performance.

Fast forward almost exactly 300 years to New Orleans and the communications strategy is getting a modern reboot. On Saturday, composer Yotam Haber debuted his "New Water Music"—an elaborate performance involving the Louisiana Philharmonic Orchestra, hundreds of community musicians, as well as boats, barges and buoys. The message? To raise awareness about Louisiana’s receding wetlands, coastal erosion, and changing lifestyles for fishermen. Louisiana loses 16 square miles of land a year—the fastest rate of loss in the world.

Thousands filled the Lake Pontchartrain shoreline to hear the performance, enjoy fish fry—and get important information about coastal issues. Haber appeared wearing a flowing cape held aloft by two assistants dressed as mer-people and conducted from a barge decorated with seashells and beads. Members of the orchestra were arranged on boats by section – percussion, woodwinds, brass, and so on, while other musicians were onshore and played in ship-to-shore call-and-response. As the music flowed more than a dozen shrimp and oyster boats moved in patterns and dipped and raised their nets in a water ballet.

Because of the massive distances between musicians, Haber conducted using naval flags and occasionally Morse Code. The choreography was so complex; it required coordination with the U.S. Coast Guard and the Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries. But the goal stayed simple. To create a swell of support for protecting coastlines and buoy the livelihoods that depend on healthy ecosystems.

We can 'Handel' that.

"After 140 Years, Indigenous People Win a Major Victory." That story and other headlines for the week ending March 19, 2017 [ Show/Hide Transcript ]

Physicians Warn About the Health Effects of Climate Change

More people are using their asthma medications in Montana due to wildfires; the tick season is lasting longer making Lyme disease more of a worry on the East Coast; and more violent storms and extreme weather events are causing severe damage, like that in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, last year where 13 people died during extreme flooding.

These problems, along with others, have led a large organization of doctors to issue a report about health problems caused by climate change. The physicians are members of the Medical Society Consortium on Climate and Health and they’re warning that Americans need to become aware of medical problems associated with global warming. The organization represents more than half of the physicians in the U.S. and have reached the point where they find it necessary to inform the public.

Even if we are not aware of all the medical issues associated with climate change, a new Gallup poll shows that the public’s views of the problem are changing. 45 percent of Americans now say they worry a great deal about global warming. That’s the highest in nearly three decades. The poll also showed that almost 70 percent believe humans are causing the climate to change, and more than 60 percent are convinced we’re already experiencing its negative effects.

While some in the Trump administration and the Republican-led congress will not admit or recognize the problem, the new Secretary of Defense, James Mattis sees it differently. He stated recently that climate change is real and a threat to American interests abroad. ProPublica reports that Mattis has long espoused the position that the armed forces, for a host of reasons, need to cut dependence on fossil fuels and explore renewable energy where it makes sense.

El Niño Brings Devastating Floods to Peru

In Peru about 70 people have been killed and the number of homeless has increased since the deadliest rains in decades have hit the country’s coast. Nearly half of Peru has been affected, and the storms are expected to continue for another two weeks. More than 800 cities have declared an emergency, and the capital, Lima, has been without water for days. The health ministry has started fumigating around pools of water in streets to kill mosquitoes that carry diseases like dengue.

The BBC reports that Peru and other countries around the Pacific Ocean have been affected in recent months by the phenomenon known as El Niño, a rise in sea temperatures that increases evaporation and brings about heavy rains.

River in New Zealand Is the First in World to Gain Legal Rights

The Whanganui River in New Zealand is very important to the Maori people as the source of spiritual sustenance. They see it as a caregiver, and a guardian. It is the nation’s third longest river, and last week it was given legal status just like a human. The New Zealand Herald reports that the river now has all the rights, duties and liabilities that come with personhood.

Among other things, the river will now be represented in court proceedings where one person from the Maori tribes and one from the government will speak for it.

An official says that he knows some will say it's strange to give a natural resource a legal personality; but, it's no different than giving rights to family trusts, companies or a corporation. The Maori have been struggling for about 140 years to protect the river legally. When the law was passed hundreds of tribal representatives wept with joy. The people who live along the Whanganui have a well-known proverb that says: "I am the river. The river is me."

Yoga Pants and Fleece Jackets Are Harming Ocean Wildlife

The things we wear for comfort and exercise may be polluting the oceans according to a new study. The two-year inquiry led by the Mississippi-Alabama Sea Grant Consortium found that tiny little plastic fibers from things like yoga pants or fleece jackets and anything that's nylon or polyester, shed microscopic pieces of plastic when they’re washed, and those tiny pieces find their way into fish, oysters, and other wildlife.

And a new follow-up study is being launched along the Gulf Coast to see just how prevalent the problem is.

The Associated Press reports that experts are suggesting that manufacturers of washing machines may need to be encouraged to include filters that reduce plastic waste. A study, conducted by volunteers in Florida, showed that nearly 90 percent of the samples included at least one piece of plastic, and among those, the smaller microfibers made up more than 80 percent.

One clothing company, Patagonia, is supporting research into microfiber pollution and is informing consumers about ways to minimize the effects such as laundering clothes less often and using a front-loading washing machine.

Sinkhole Celebrates First Birthday

California-town-celebrates-birthday-for-year-old-sinkhole And finally, there was cake; there were balloons and streamers—everything you’d expect at a birthday party...everything except that the guest of honor at this celebration was a hole—a 15 by 20 foot sinkhole to be exact that opened up east of San Francisco. Locals gathered at a busy intersection in the suburb of Moraga to sing happy birthday and joke, but they also wanted to call attention to the fact that the massive crater hasn’t been fixed for over a year.

Last March a series of El Niño-linked storms saturated the ground at the intersection causing the collapse, but one year later, the town says it doesn’t have the $3.3 million needed for repairs so, it's been left to jump through federal hoops to get the funds.

Sinkholes can occur for various reasons. Natural sinkholes can result over time from water seeping into the ground and eroding soil and rock. They can also be the result of drilling, mining, or even heavy traffic. Most often they form from broken water or drain pipes.

A spokesperson for public works said they’ve nearly completed the required paperwork and expect repairs to begin sometime this summer. As for the party goers their patience is running thin. Waiting another 4 more months for Washington to send the money? That leaves them 'Fed up' with the 'hole' business.

"Trump Tees Up Another Conflict." That story and other headlines for the week ending March 12, 2017
[ Show/Hide Transcript ]

Pruitt Says We Don’t Know If CO2 Plays Role in Global Warming

It was a stunning statement. Even to those who suspected something like it was probably coming. Last week the new head of the EPA, Scott Pruitt said he would not agree that carbon dioxide is a primary contributor to global warming, adding that we don’t know yet what role CO2 plays.

But we do know what CO2 does to the atmosphere, and Pruitt is dead wrong at least according to the vast majority of scientists. The idea that there is uncertainty about the greenhouse gas – is contrived, or made up, according to Quartz an online news outlet. Four years ago, 2,000 international scientists found that the warming that occurred from 1951 to 2010 was extremely likely to be a consequence of human emissions of CO2 along with other greenhouse gases.

Stephen Pacala of Princeton University told Politifact that Pruitt’s statement means he does not accept the overwhelming scientific consensus.

And, his views even contradict some people in the fossil fuel industry. An executive vice president for Shell Energy said last week at a conference of energy producers that he was absolutely convinced CO2 can cause serious damage not only to this generation but to future generations.

Pruitt has not responded to requests to clarify his comments, but earlier he said that "the future of the EPA ain’t what it used to be," according to the New York Times. Last week Mustafa Ali, head of the EPA’s environmental justice program resigned after it was learned the Trump administration planned to cut his office entirely.

That office at the EPA was established by President Bill Clinton after activists identified a pattern of locating polluting industries in poor communities of color.

Also Stunning, the Announcement by Large Fossil Fuel Companies that They Are Going to Invest in Renewable Energy

In contrast to Pruitt, large oil companies are beginning to see the downside of fossil fuels. Royal Dutch Shell is not only talking about the negative effects of CO2 emissions, they are starting to invest in renewable energy.

The company announced that by the end of this decade it will spend $1 billion on renewables. While this amount is not that large relative to Shell’s budget, it is still significant. The chair of the company said that biggest challenge Shell faces is eroding public trust in their industry.

In January Saudi Aramco, the world’s largest oil company, said that it was considering a $5 billion investment in renewables.

Golf, POTUS, and WOTUS

Golfing is important to Donald Trump. Golf Digest, one of the leading publications for the sport, called him the "Golfer-in-Chief." So, it’s likely he was paying attention in 2015 when the Obama Administration announced a new rule that could lead to regulation of relatively small bodies of water.

Farmers and real estate developers attacked the new regulation saying it was an overreach by the government and a power grab. And so did the Associated Golf Course Superintendents who feared that ponds, lakes and streams on their grounds would be subject to the Clean Water Act.

But now the new president has ordered the rule be rescinded and rewritten, calling it one of the worst examples of federal regulation. In doing so he has teed up the issue of his conflicts of interest.

There are 17,000 members of the Superintendent’s group and the head lobbyist for the organization told Bloomberg that they are pleased to see an effort by the Trump administration to revisit the rule. That golfing group, which includes more than 20 Trump employees, spent $30,000 dollars lobbying against the regulation when it was announced.

On average, each golf course in the US has 11 acres of water bodies like lakes, ponds and streams. The golfing industry feared increased costs if they had to keep those waters clean according to EPA standards.

Trump has not divested himself of his business holdings which include 12 courses in the U.S.

Study: Intense Droughts Travel Like Hurricanes

New research shows that droughts may travel across continents in patterns that scientists can predict. The study published in the journal Geophysical Research Letters shows that about 10% of droughts travel between about 900 to 2000 miles, and these tend to be the largest and most severe.

Julio Herrera-Estrada of Princeton University, who led the study, told Climate News Network that some intense droughts migrate like a slow-motion hurricane on a timescale of months to years instead of days to weeks. The importance of this work is that water managers might be able to cope with drought much better if they know where and when shortages could occur.

The next step for the researchers is to study the reasons droughts travel and to understand their behavior. This study comes as 20 million people in Africa and the Middle East are facing famine due in part to drought.

If You’re a Sleepwalker this Hotel May not Be for You—If You Catch Our Drift

Floating-hotel-room And finally, an ideal vacation would include a hotel that lets you drift off to sleep in a beautiful place, right? Well, a Japanese theme park has got you covered—by taking the word "drift" literally. It’s launching floating sleeping pods at its island–based attraction.

The hotel "rooms" are futuristic looking orbs that can sleep up to four people, with beds, toilets, showers—plus a perfect view of the stars. Guests bob across the sea overnight and arrive at an island, which has numerous attractions that tourists can explore the following day. In theory anyway. It has yet to be revealed exactly how the floating spheres move across the water or if they’ll be monitored. For that reason people are divided on its appeal. One commenter told Naver's Matome News "Imagine waking up in the morning and finding yourself in North Korea!"

This isn’t the first time the company has pushed the envelope in accommodations. In 2015, the park opened the Henna-na Hotel, the world’s first to be staffed by robots. At their front desk a female humanoid appears to breathe, blink and for extra creeps seems to make eye contact as she greets you and answers questions about your stay.

The floating pods aren’t due to open until the end of the year, but if you do go, you might want to bring snacks. It doesn’t appear there will be room service of any kind. And if you did call the front desk—you might get this:

Hal: I'm sorry, Dave. I'm afraid I can't do that.

"How to Make the Great Lakes Not So Great Again." That story and other headlines for the week ending March 5, 2017 [ Show/Hide Transcript ]

Leaked Budget Reveals Flood of Cuts

The news last week centers on cuts, cuts and more cuts as a draft of the proposed federal budget was leaked from the dripping Trump administration. The document shows a 25% reduction in funding of the EPA and a 20% reduction in personnel.

ABC News obtained the proposed budget that would chop climate initiatives by 70% and make major reductions to programs like the restoration of San Francisco Bay, Lake Champlain in upstate New York, and Long Island Sound. And there’s much more, funds for The Great Lakes Restoration Initiative would be cut from 300 million dollars to 10. That program combats invasive species, restores wildlife habitats and cleans up watersheds polluted by Rust Belt factories.

Cleaning the Great Lakes has traditionally enjoyed strong bipartisan support in Congress. And even Republicans are pushing back. Representative Fred Upton of Michigan told MLIVE Media that the draft budgets are alarming and the Great Lakes must be a priority. Other cuts include the EPA’s Environmental Justice program, which emphasizes cleaning up black, Hispanic and low-income communities that are disproportionately affected by pollution. Ken Cook, president of the Environmental Working Group, told the Guardian that the administration is sending a shameful message that the health of poor Americans is less important than that of the wealthy. The Trump administration’s final budget is due to be submitted by the middle of this month.

Also on the Chopping Block Is Funding for Research and Satellite Programs and That Could Jeopardize Safety

Even more slashing is proposed in scientific research done by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The budget would curtail research and satellite programs. One satellite to be cut would collect necessary information to predict weather, make agricultural forecasts and help in disaster planning as the climate warms.

The Washington Post reports that the draft budget would also eliminate a variety of smaller programs, including coastal management efforts to strengthen shorelines to withstand major storms and rising seas.

Jane Lubchenco, NOAA administrator under Obama, said that 90 percent of the information for weather forecasts comes from satellites and cutting NOAA’s budget will compromise the agency’s mission of keeping Americans safe.

Farmers and Ranchers Are Ecstatic at the Possibility of this Obama-Era Rule Going Away

Two years ago, the Obama Administration enacted a rule that would define what waters in the country are covered by the Clean Water Act. Identifying those waters is no simple task. The Clean Water Act requires the federal government to regulate large bodies of water so that they are not polluted. But those larger bodies of water are fed by smaller streams, wetlands and rivers that are easily polluted by things like agricultural and urban runoff.

The purpose of the rule was to clarify which rivers, creeks and streams that connect to the larger water bodies are protected under the Clean Water Act, but the rule never officially took effect due to litigation.

Trump signed an order last week instructing the EPA and the US Army Corps of engineers to review the rule. Opponents of the Obama rule were ecstatic. Farmers and their political supporters say the regulation is an overreach and might threaten their private property.

But, it won’t be easy to get rid of the existing rule. The Washington Post explained that to eliminate it, there will have to be a full notice-and-comment period. And then the agencies will have to adequately respond to the comments they receive. After that it is highly likely that there will be lawsuits from both blue states and environmental groups.

Zinke Rides In and Gets the Lead Out

One contaminant that gets into water is lead used in ammunition and fish tackle. Ryan Zinke was sworn in last week as Secretary of the Interior. After riding to his new office on his horse, he promptly cut an Obama Administration rule that banned the use of lead in fishing and hunting on national wildlife areas. While some sportsmen applauded Zinke’s reversal, environmental groups criticized it, saying that spent lead casings cause poisoning in 130 species of birds and other animals.

The main objection to banning lead for hunting and fishing is that alternatives cost more. Even so some states including California ban the metal, and Arizona has offered substitutes for sportsmen who choose not to use it.

Know what a Leg Basket Is? You Might Not Need to If Global Warming Continues

And finally, there was a troubling statistic that came out of a conference held at the Vatican last week: One in five species on Earth now faces extinction, and that number will likely double by the end of the century. Researchers warn of an approaching ‘major extinction event’ caused by destruction of ecosystems, deforestation, overgrazing, and of course climate change.

Although endangered species like rhinos and tigers make headlines, the scientists say there are less famous plants and animals that we should be worried about, too. These species purify our air and water, regenerate soil, provide food and medicine—they make life on earth possible.

And as serious as losing leopards and lemurs is, destroying ecosystems could be causing the extinction of something else: words. According to Outside magazine, six nouns could go the way of the dodo bird because of climate change.

Terms like “leg basket.” That’s a structure on bees’ legs used to collect pollen. Bees are crucial pollinators that help produce our food and they’re threatened not only by pesticides, but also by shorter winters and shrinking habitats.

Another goner might be something called a “scallop dredge.” That’s a rake-like device dragged along the ocean floor to collect shellfish. Ocean acidification from burning fossil fuels is eating away at scallop shells and preventing growth of larvae.

And then there’s the more familiar “lift line.” Average global temperature has risen 1.5 degrees since 1880: warmer weather means precipitation that does fall will come as rain rather than snow at ski areas.

If all of this make you want to pour yourself something strong, sorry. Another word that might disappear is ‘Hogshead,’ that’s the word for the casks where wineries and breweries store their products. It might become defunct as prolonged drought and extreme heat are affecting yields and increasing pests.

The possibility that we’d have to face the annihilation without our favorite stout or merlot? That leaves us at a loss—for words.

"Feds: Pollution? OK! Pot? Not!" That story and other headlines for the week ending February 26, 2017
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Scott Pruitt Thinks States Need More Leeway to Pollute. One State Is Already Taking Him up on It.

The Trump administration is set to start the work of dismantling climate and water rules as early as next week. That’s according to new EPA administrator Scott Pruitt who spoke last week at the Conservative Political Action Conference or CPAC. Pruitt wants to give states more of a say in air and water protection to ensure that regulations are reigned in.

An example of what he might mean is being played out in West Virginia where a bill that would allow more pollution to be discharged into rivers and streams was approved by a legislative committee. The bill would change the way pollutants are measured so that discharge permits would allow significantly more contaminants in water, according to a consultant who spoke with the Charleston Gazette Mail.

The bill is being pushed by the state Manufacturers Association with the support of Governor Jim Justice. The Governor said in his State of the State address that regulators should stop standing in the way of business growth. He denigrated state environmental inspectors saying they wear t-shirts, old jeans and haven’t shaved in forever.

According to Angie Rosser, with the Western Virginia Rivers Coalition, it comes down to whether the legislature wants more toxic and cancer-causing chemicals in the water—or not.

While the New Administration May Crack Down on Pot, Colorado Just Made it Easier to Grow.

While the feds want to allow states more leeway with pollution regulations, not so fast with marijuana. White House press secretary Sean Spicer said the administration expects federal officials to enforce drug laws prohibiting marijuana in those states that now allow recreational use.

The feds will continue to allow medical pot, but the Trump spokesman said that he believes recreational use may encourage people to try opioids—basically the theory that weed is a gateway drug. But, the marijuana industry is already quite large employing thousands.

One state benefiting from legalization is accommodating the industry particularly in its use of water, even as the administration gets mad over reefers. A little more than a week ago, a court in Colorado approved an application to use water to grow pot for both medical and recreational use.

The company asking for the permission wants a water right to irrigate up to 3,000 pot plants. The application was filed in the complex water courts in Colorado, and was approved even though pot is still a controlled substance as the White House pointed out.

Aspen Journalism reports that there may not be an appeal of the decision granting the water right. It seems the main objections were not to the use of the water, but instead the amount required. The Colorado court pointed out that while federal law may ban pot, it does not ban using water to grow marijuana.

Water Protectors at Standing Rock Evicted One Day Before the Pope Warns of Water Wars.

Last Friday Pope Francis said that access to clean drinking water is a basic human right. His remarks came as he met with 90 international experts who participated in what was called a "Dialogue on Water" held at the Vatican.

The Catholic News Service reports that the pope cited statistics from the UN that said each day 1,000 children die from water-related illnesses, and millions of people consume polluted water daily. The pontiff also said that he asks himself if we all are headed toward a world war over water.

The struggle to protect water from pollution has led to violence as most know in North Dakota, maybe not on the scale feared by the pope, but still with people being attacked by dogs, water cannons, and bullets.

The day before the pope made his remarks, police officers in North Dakota removed all remaining water protectors from the main Standing Rock camp. Videos of the police action resemble military operations with armed vehicles, and riot clad officers heavily weaponized.

At one time the Standing Rock Camp contained 10,000 people, but last week only 70 remained according to Vice News.

New Study Shows Much Greater Risk From Fracking Spills

There is a new study about fracking and its potential threat to water which shows that threat is more significant than thought. This new report, done by researchers at Duke University, looked at spills not only during the fracking process itself, but long after drilling—as much as ten years. The study found that there had been nearly 7,000 releases or spills from fracked wells over a ten-year period in four states: North Dakota, Colorado, New Mexico and Pennsylvania.

What was significant about this new research is that a prior study by the EPA found only about 460 spills in a shorter period, but that EPA report did not look beyond just a few days after drilling. The new work showed that about half of the spills occur around storage of liquids and moving them through pipelines.

Most of the spills studied occurred in North Dakota where police just removed protesters from the Standing Rock site.

Hair-Raising Contest Could Net You $750

And finally, we’ve all had bad hair days when we want to hide, but that uncooperative hairdo of yours—it could score you some cold, hard cash. Operative word being cold. People from all over the globe are heading to Canada to create the most artistic hairstyle possible—by freezing it. The most dramatic coif could win $750!

freezinghair_web To enter the contest you have to get yourself to Takhini Hot Pools in the Yukon and soak in their hot springs. And it’s gotta be cold enough—somewhere in the neighborhood of negative 4 degrees Fahrenheit. Don’t worry. The pool is toasty—averaging about 108 degrees—and for that reason it emits a lot of steam, which then freezes your hair.

The Takhini website gives step-by-step instructions for the best results which include the caveat that it could take a while. Two of the steps in the process are "Wait" and then "Wait some more." Eventually your hair will be ready to sculpt to a design limited only by your imagination. Think Medusa, or Einstein.

When you’re ready, take a selfie and submit it to the contest. Winners will be announced mid-March. Curious to see the “hair-raising” early submissions? Go to our website at H2O Radio dot org to see the frozen bobs, or as the Daily Telegraph called them, "perm-a-frosts."

"Waterways Threatened with Nuclear Waste" and other headlines for the week ending February 19, 2017 [ Show/Hide Transcript ]

It Would Take Less than Two Ounces of Radioactive Uranium to Destroy a City’s Water Supply. Should We Really Ship It on our Highways?

The nation’s highways may become a bit more dangerous this spring. On Tuesday, the Department of Energy announced that shipments of solid nuclear waste will soon start moving along our roads to an underground repository in southern New Mexico.

The shipments were halted three years ago after a radiation release contaminated the facility, known as WIPP—for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Most of the waste will come from Idaho—61 truckloads in all—but that is just a small fraction of the 900 shipments that are supposed to be made from that state by the end of next year.

All the nuclear waste going to New Mexico is solid, but the Department of Energy also announced last week that it is planning to ship liquid nuclear waste along highways from Canada to the Savanah River Site in South Carolina. As Mother Jones reports, there will be at least 100 to 150 separate truck shipments of liquid nuclear waste over a period of about three years.

Environmental groups including the Sierra Club and Beyond Nuclear recently sued to force the government to prepare a new environmental impact statement before starting the shipments. But a federal judge in Washington, D.C., is allowing the shipments to go forward.

The liquid waste poses a bigger threat to the environment than solid waste if spilled into waterways or lakes. Less than two ounces of the radioactive uranium could destroy a city's water supply, according to Gordon Edwards, of the Canadian Coalition for Nuclear Responsibility.

If a spill contaminated the Great Lakes or any other waterway it could be permanent. Officials will not disclose the routes for the shipments which makes it impossible for people to take any action to prevent them.

Residents in Mosul, Iraq, Have Resorted to Sledgehammers and Shovels in Order to Get Water

It’s been about three weeks since Iraqi forces took control of eastern Mosul from ISIS. And life is extremely difficult there. The water and sewer systems are not working.

Two reporters from the New York Times learned last week how residents in the liberated areas are getting water. Using a sledgehammer to pound a steel pipe through concrete, and shovels to dig, people have reached water sometimes after working for three days. They said that they don’t drink the water but only, use it only for washing clothes and cleaning dishes. People can buy bottled water for drinking in some parts of liberated areas.

Iraqi forces are beginning an assault on the western part of Mosul. On Saturday, The United Nations warned that up to 800,000 people are at "extreme" risk due to lack of food, fuel supplies, and acute shortages of drinking water.

The Questionable Safety of the Oroville Dam Is Nothing New

Last week nearly 190,000 people were evacuated when officials worried that parts of the Oroville Dam in Northern California could fail. Luckily that didn’t happen but another storm is forecast to deliver heavy rain to the area and it was possible another evacuation order could be issued.

The questionable safety of the Oroville Dam is nothing new. The San Jose Mercury News reports that a little more than 10 years ago, three environmental groups told the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission that the dam did not meet safety standards. They said fast-rising water would overwhelm the concrete spillway and then flow down the emergency spillway, possibly leading to flooding downstream. But the state of California and various water supply agencies said the upgrades were not necessary, and the feds agreed.

So, the near-disaster at Oroville has brought renewed attention to the problem of aging dams. As detailed in Fortune Magazine, 65% of dams in the U.S. will be past their 50-year designated lifespan in three years. And the American Society of Civil Engineers rates almost 4,000 dams as being susceptible to failure.

The crisis with dams will be exacerbated by climate change which is predicted to bring more extreme weather events and put stress on already weakened infrastructure.

Oceans Are Losing Oxygen, and that Could Have Detrimental Consequences

A study published last week in the journal Nature concludes that the oxygen content in earth’s oceans declined by more than 2% between 1960 and 2010. That’s concerning because just a little loss of oxygen in coastal waters can lead to a complete change in ecosystems according to David Baker, at the University of Hong Kong. He told CNN that the drop may have detrimental consequences for fisheries and coastal economies because fish can’t survive in dead zones created by the lack of oxygen. The dead zones also pump out nitrous oxide another harmful greenhouse gas.

The cause of the decline is partly a result of climate change—warmer waters hold less oxygen. But as the surface waters get warmer, the oxygen is less likely to sink to layers below.

Baker said that the oceans are really a mirror of human health—if they're sick and dying, then that's the future of mankind as well.

Did You Hear About NASA's "Space Poop Challenge"? It Went Smoothly.

And finally, when you gotta go, you gotta go and that can be challenging if you’re an astronaut. It’s not like you can just pull into a gas station.

NASA has been working on this problem and has made advances since the days of plastic bags. The fancy International Space Station toilets suction human waste, and then jettison it from the ship where it catches fire in the atmosphere, looking like shooting stars. But what they haven’t quite got down is what to do on space walks. Right now astronauts wear diapers. But they’re limited. They’re only good for about 10 hours.

What the space agency wants is something that will allow the astronauts to be out and about for longer—days not hours. If we’re going to explore places like Mars we’re going to need to keep astronauts safe from their feces and urine. So, they announced the “Space Poop Challenge” to crowdsource a solution. About 5,000 people from more than 150 teams submitted some pretty badass ideas.

The winner was Thatcher Cardon, a family physician and Air Force flight surgeon. Inspired by operating techniques like catheters he came up with a concept to locate a tiny valve in the suit’s crotch through which astronauts can insert and remove expandable diapers and underwear.

Wondering about the toilet paper? Cardon’s plan includes something called a "hygiene wand"—a tip covered with bunched fabric that is pulled in a motion similar to a sock being turned inside out.

NASA engineers are going to take the top three winning ideas and test them for their next generation spacesuit. Their lab notes for the poop in a suit? We’d call that a "Captain’s log..."

"That Sinking Feeling in California," and other headlines for the week ending February 12, 2017
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Hydropower Is Getting Edged Out as the Leading Renewable Power Source

Wind power is huge. There is no other possible conclusion to draw from data released last week that shows the capacity to generate power from wind has surpassed hydro power in the United States.

Hydroelectric dams have been the main source of renewable energy since before 1936 when Hoover Dam started operations, but the head of the American Wind Energy Association told Bloomberg that wind turbines will soon supply a tenth of the country’s electricity.

And job figures in wind energy generation keep on climbing. The Department of Energy reports that a little over 100,000 people are now employed directly in wind power generation plants, as compared to only 86,000 who work in coal fired plants.

A Group of Republicans Have Hatched a Plan to Combat Climate Change

Staying with the topic of energy, six former US government officials, all Republicans, met with the Trump Administration last week to express their support for a tax on carbon pollution.

The group including former Secretary of State James Baker are promoting what they see as free-market solutions to climate change. They propose imposing a tax on fuels like coal of $40 per ton of carbon dioxide produced. It could result in raising 200 to 300 billion dollars a year.

And that money would in turn be paid by the government to consumers in what would be called a carbon dividend. It’s estimated that a family of four could receive a 2,000-dollar check a year.

The plan comes as an alternative to the Obama Administration’s Clean Power Plan, which has attracted the wrath of Republicans.

Some critics have said that these types of proposals aren’t good because they prolong the use of fossil fuels instead of rapidly switching to renewables that do not add carbon to the atmosphere.

Enbridge a Backer of the Dakota Access Pipeline, Springs Another Leak

The Army Corp of Engineers granted an easement last week for the Dakota Access Pipeline. The decision came as no surprise after the new president indicated he would instruct the permit to be issued.

In response, U.S. Army Veterans are returning to Standing Rock with plans to shield Native American water protectors from attacks by militarized police, according to the Guardian. Among the objections to the project are its potential to leak, and harm water supplies of people in the area, mostly members of the Sioux Tribe.

Those concerns are real. A little less than a week before the Army granted permission for that project, 600,000 gallons of oil spewed out of a pipeline about 50 miles from Dallas.

That Texas pipeline is half owned by the company known as Enbridge. And Enbridge also has an interest in the Dakota Access Pipeline, according to Desmogblog. This latest leak is the second in this pipeline. Last October Reuters reports that there was another problem with the same line leaking in Oklahoma.

The Recent Precipitation in California Is Solving Some Problems but Might Not Fill This Hole

Storms have recently been hitting the west coast with rain and snow leading to flooding in areas. Much of California is finding some relief from the drought, but the rainy season is not over and there are areas continuing to suffer.

Even as conditions on the surface improve, the over pumping of groundwater mainly in the San Joaquin valley is causing land to sink in some areas - and at a startling pace. Last week the California Department of Water Resources released a report done by NASA. The study shows that there are two main subsidence areas that create bowls—where the surface has sunk.

In just 16 months from spring 2015 to fall 2016 the ground sank nearly two feet near Corcoran, and about 16 inches near El Nido. These aren’t small sink holes, one bowl runs for 60 miles and the other is about 25. Together they cover hundreds of square miles. One of the major water supply lines, the California Aqueduct has dropped more than two feet in parts of Kings County. The damage is causing cutbacks in the amount the aqueduct can carry south. The director of the Department of Water Resources told the San Jose Mercury News that the current rate of ground subsidence is jeopardizing infrastructure that supplies water to the San Joaquin Valley.

The recent rains will not likely fill the underground aquifers because once they sink they collapse on top of each other leaving no room for water to collect. The NASA satellites that measure ground subsidence are extremely precise, and you can hear more on this subject in our interview with NASA scientist Jay Famiglietti at H2O Radio.org.

For This Valentine’s Day, How One Clever Lover Overcomes Being a Small Fish in a Big Pond

And finally, Valentine’s Day is this week and if you don’t have a date, here’s a story about a guy out in the cold who took matters into his own hands—or fins as it were.

Cichlids are rare tropical fish that live in spring-fed pools in Mexico. Their society is polygamous, so large males hoard all the females and that makes for a lot of lonely guys.

But that didn’t stop one small fish from coming up with a strategy to get the girl. Here’s what he did. He hid nearby as a male and female fish were about to mate. Typically females will deposit their eggs on rocks and a male will follow immediately after and cover them with a cloud of sperm. But at the crucial moment as the female placed her eggs, the little guy burst onto the scene, dusted them with his DNA and then dashed back to his hideaway.

The behavior is called “sneaking” and it’s rare—known to only occur among only a few dozen species out of tens of thousands worldwide. And it was all caught on tape. A Case Western Reserve University researcher, Ron Oldfield had a huge tank in his office and recorded the underdog pulling off this feat.

In his video the couple are seen attacking the interloper to drive it away, but the sneaker still managed to “insert” himself several times before the pair finished spawning. And the little guy doubled down. Not only did he interrupt the lovers he attacked other males swimming nearby.

The video recordings are among the first of this sneaking behavior published about any animal. So in case Professor Oldfield wants to make his video into a blockbuster, we think we have a catchy title...

How about "Sex, Size, and Videotape."

"The U.S. Fumbles the Ball" and other headlines for the week ending February 5, 2017
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Are You an “Urban Eco-Imperialist"? If You Care About the Environment, You Might Be

The U.S. government seems to be leading the race to the bottom of the list of those nations concerned about climate change.

When he was campaigning, the new president said that he would tear up the Paris Climate accord that has been signed by 197 countries, but he has not acted yet. Because of Trump, other countries no longer view the United States government as the leader in the struggle to save the planet from global warming.

China is now emerging as the nation at the forefront. Gregory Barker, climate change minister to former British Prime Minister David Cameron, said that if America won't lead then it's clear that China will. The Asian powerhouse is leading the world in solar power generation. The National Energy Administration announced Saturday that China is the world's biggest producer of solar energy having doubled its photovoltaic capacity last year.

But it’s not just solar, China recently overtook the US as the largest market for electric vehicles, and Chinese companies are now challenging Tesla’s lead. At the World Economic Forum Chinese President Xi Jinping called on all countries to hold fast to the hard-won Paris Agreement warning that walking away from the accord would threaten future generations.

The new American administration’s negative view of scientists concerned about climate change was underscored last week by Myron Ebell who headed Trump's transition team for the Environmental Protection Agency. Ebell said at a conference in Brussels, that environmental experts are what he calls “urban eco-imperialists.” He criticized them saying that the climate industrial complex has figured out how to get rich by alarming people.

The EU observer reported that Britain’s former energy and climate change minister responded by telling Ebell to stop trashing experts, and that denigrating learning and expertise sends a terrible message to young people.

U.S. Navy Responds to Climate Change

While the White House and the Republican led Congress seem poised to ignore climate change and its effects, the U.S. Navy does not have the luxury to bury its head in sandy beaches as sea levels rise.

The U.S. military has viewed global warming as a problem since 2003, if not earlier, according to retired General Gerry Galloway who spoke with the Voice of America. The Navy confronts rising sea levels all over the world. In Norfolk Virginia, the rising surf damages electrical, water, and steam lines under the piers, and high waves can keep sailors from getting to their ships. In response, the Navy now builds piers higher, and places utility lines under a protected concrete deck. Even getting to the naval base is harder as "nuisance flooding" becomes a regular problem, cutting off roads around the city of Norfolk.

And on the other coast, Marketplace reports that the Ventura County Naval Base in California, is seeing impacts from storms and flooding. The base has lost about 400 feet of beach since the 1940s, and buildings that were far away from the waves, are now close. To deal with the problem, the California naval base has partnered with The Nature Conservancy to help with its decision making. Lily Verdone, from the Conservancy, said the agreement with the Navy signed last summer is the first public-private partnership to address climate adaptation on Defense Department lands.

At least to the U.S. Navy climate change is no hoax.

Congress Cuts Stream Protection Rule to Promote Dying Coal Industry

In efforts to save the dying coal industry, both the U.S. Senate and the House voted last week to roll back Obama administration rules that would have cut the levels of coal waste getting tossed into nearby streams.

When the rules were issued last December the Department of the Interior said that they would require companies to avoid mining practices that permanently pollute streams, destroy drinking water sources, increase flood risk, and threaten forests. It would also have required companies to restore streams and mined areas. The bill focused on the mining technique of shearing off mountaintops where the debris is cast aside and often into nearby streams.

Forbes business magazine noted that undoing these regulations won’t change the coal industry’s fate, because the biggest coal-fired utilities are ditching their older plants and they are not building new ones. Instead, they are switching to natural gas and renewables. Nationally, 300 coal plants have been shuttered since 2008 and more are scheduled to close.

Drought Threaten Millions in Somalia with Famine.

Millions of people in Somalia face starvation after two seasons of drought have led to food shortages. In the last six months, the danger of famine has increased to threaten 3 million people with an emergency food crisis, according to the UN. To put this in perspective, that’s like the entire city of Chicago—plus more—facing severe hunger.

The UN is calling for a massive and urgent increase in humanitarian assistance in the coming weeks. The drought has wiped out crops and killed livestock. Communities are being forced to sell their assets to survive.

February’s Favorite Rodent Is Threatened by Climate Change.

And finally, last week marked Groundhog Day. The annual tradition in which a famous rodent, Punxsutawney Phil, emerges from his burrow to see his shadow—or not as the case may be—to tell all those assembled when winter will end. For the record, this year Phil did see his shadow, predicting six more weeks of winter. So we wondered, how often is Phil right?

Folks at the Washington Post wondered, also. They ran the numbers on 250 cities over thirty years and found out that sometimes he’s right, but it really depended on what cities, and in the end, the marmot was no more accurate than a coin toss.

To make matters even worse for poor Phil, climate change may put him out of a job anyway. According to Climate Central for most of the country, except the west, temperatures in the winter are warming faster than during the other three seasons.

And more bad news for Phil. Roelof Hut, at the University of Groningen in the Netherlands, told Gizmodo that climate change could shorten Phil’s life. Hibernating species like groundhogs have periods of deep sleep, broken up every few weeks with arousal times in which they expend their fat reserves. A warmer climate means groundhogs will wake up more, to the point where they deplete their fat, get too skinny, and maybe die.

Maybe with climate change threatening poor Phil’s life, the people of Punxatawney should let him sleep in and instead allow meteorologists to use science to predict when spring will arrive.

"Pipelines, Purges, and Protests" and other headlines for the week ending January 29, 2017
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The Standing Rock Sioux Are Standing Up to Sue Again

In a week that saw significant pipeline leaks, the President breathed new life into two controversial projects. He signed an order instructing the Army Corps of Engineers to review and approve in an expedited manner, the permitting of the Dakota Access Pipeline. And the president also invited pipeline company TransCanada to resubmit its application for the Keystone XL that had been rejected by the Obama administration.

While this was occurring, in Iowa a diesel fuel pipeline spilled almost 140,000 gallons in what a Department of Natural Resources supervisor called "a big one." And in Saskatchewan about 53,000 gallons of oil leaked from a hole in a pipeline on the lands of the Ocean Man First Nation 90 miles southeast of Regina.

Regarding the Dakota Access Pipeline, The Standing Rock Sioux tribe said it would file suit, and water protectors considered returning to resistance camps near Bismarck, North Dakota. Some of them had left the camps after the Army said late last year that an environmental impact statement would have to be done before it would allow the pipeline to move forward.

The water protectors at Standing Rock have had a significant impact. So much that they have prompted desperate responses from those in the North Dakota legislature. One lawmaker urged passage of a bill that would make it a crime to wear a mask during a protest. Many water protectors wore scarves that partially hid their faces. Another bill would exempt drivers from liability if they unintentionally injured or killed a pedestrian who was obstructing traffic on a public road. Some of the protests at Standing Rock were on highways and bridges. And two North Dakota representatives introduced a resolution last week calling for the congress to give the states the ability to manage the affairs of Indian tribes.

It was not clear if any of these reactionary, and probably unconstitutional measures would pass.

CDC Quietly Cancelled Its Climate Conference, But It’s Been Resurrected

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention abruptly and quietly canceled its Climate and Health Summit shortly after Trump was elected, according to E&E News.

But the conference has been revived due to efforts of some including former Vice President Al Gore. The environmental champion announced Thursday that the event will go on in Atlanta, on February 16 but not at the CDC, instead at the Carter Center.

Gore said in a statement that health professionals urgently need the very best science to protect the public, and climate research has increasingly critical implications for their day-to-day work.

The CDC has offered no explanation for canceling the conference but there is some indication that it was from fear of the new administration. Like other gagged agencies who have created rogue social media accounts, there is also one for the CDC with a masthead stating "Join the Resistance."

Purge and Political Screening of Scientific Studies and Data

The climate change conference was not the only victim of the new administration’s purge. Within moments of the inauguration, the official White House website took down all references to global warming and climate change science.

The replacement pages contain an energy development plan emphasizing fossil fuels, and opening public lands to drilling and mining. It is said that all of this is being done by the Administration to free the US from dependence on foreign oil, and to lower the cost of energy. However, as the business magazine Forbes pointed out, energy in America is the cheapest it’s ever been in our history, and more oil and gas is being produced than ever.

The administration has also announced that it will be scrutinizing reports and data generated by the EPA. The political screening of scientific studies covers new work but also those generated in the past. In our recent story, "Drilling Apart Democracy," we spoke with a former EPA scientist who is deeply concerned that science won’t matter anymore.

The anxiety over what could happen to federally funded research has scientists frantically copying data from government sites to preserve and protect it.

Two-Mile Gap in Arizona

A two-mile long crack in the earth’s surface has opened in the Arizona desert. In places the gap is 25 feet deep which is quite dangerous for livestock, other animals and humans. Joe Cook of the Arizona Geological Survey told KVOA that the ground is sinking because of water withdrawals in the area for years. He said there were cow skeletons in some of the crevices and he himself helped pull a calf out of a fissure.

Besides this crack, Arizona officials have mapped more that 170 miles of fissures across the state. If water supplies from the Central Arizona Project are curtailed due to ongoing drought, there will likely be more ground water pumping leading to more subsidence and more fissures.

In other Arizona developments, it is likely that wastewater will soon be permitted to be used as drinking water...After treatment, of course. The plan has been mocked as toilet to tap, and until now has not been allowed. The Tucson Water director told the Arizona Daily Star that water reuse’s time has come and it is needed sooner rather than later.

You say tomato, I say tomahto

And finally, if you’re a gardener you know how great a fresh tomato plucked from the backyard vine can be. A complete opposite from that watered down, tasteless blob you get from the grocery store.

But fear not Caprese salad lovers! Help is one the way!

Researchers at the University of Florida have figured out what’s wrong with modern tomatoes, and revealed that answer in a study published in the journal Science. For decades, breeders have selected traits that produced bigger, more disease resistant, shippable tomatoes with a long shelf life. What they left out? Flavor.

And because this breeding took place so slowly over time, nobody noticed.

To fix the problem the old-fashioned way, by crossing an heirloom with a modern tomato, would take a long time, so instead the researchers mapped the genomes of 398 different kinds of tomatoes to identify traits that make them delicious.

Building a better Beefsteak is still a few years off. Turns out, tomatoes are a complex interplay of compounds—especially sugar. Growers know consumers prefer sweeter tomatoes, but sweeter means smaller fruit size, which could drive up labor costs and eventually jack up the price in the produce aisle.

Burger lovers everywhere are hoping that eventually science will "ketchup" and be able to deliver a better tasting tomato.

"There’s Water Under the Water" and other headlines for the week ending January 22, 2017
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These Untapped Fresh Water Resources Might Be Enough to Fill the Great Lakes Twenty Times. Where Did They Come From?

There is a source of clean and drinkable water in an unlikely place–underneath other waters.

That’s right, there’s freshwater underneath the oceans in isolated aquifers and its gaining attention as we realize how precious water is becoming.

Some estimates of the amount contained in these sub-ocean aquifers figure there’s enough to fill the Great Lakes 20 times, according to Hakai magazine. How did it get there? Brandon Dugan, an associate professor of petro physics at the Colorado School of Mines, says it’s from ancient glaciers and “when those glaciers retreated those waters were stuck beneath the shore line and offshore.”

He says that as glaciers advanced and retreated over thousands of years, they put heavy pressure on the melting water underneath, “like squeezing water out of the sediments onshore and pushing it offshore.”

Dugan says the water is neither renewable nor permanent. If we’re able to harvest it, it could be a resource as populations grow and sea levels rise and encroach on onshore reserves.

Although these types of aquifers are found worldwide many cross international borders and that might raise trans boundary water issues. Some aquifers in the U.S. cross state boundaries and others stretch into Canada and Dugan says, “offshore Norway it will also cross international boundaries and we’ll have to think about who actually governs these resources.”

Currently there are a couple of projects under way to see if these undersea aquifers can become feasible sources of drinking water in the future.

If He’s Confirmed, He Will Be Suing Himself

Senators held hearings last week about the new president’s appointments and when it comes to water there could be a lot of turbidity. The nominee to be head of the EPA, Oklahoma Attorney General Scott Pruitt, if approved must decide whether and how to enforce the Clean Water Act.

Pruitt has sued the agency he now wants to lead 14 times to overturn water and air standards, and some of those cases are still pending. About 18 months ago he sued the EPA over its new rule to define which U.S. waters are protected.

But when asked if he would recuse himself from ongoing cases, he would not commit.

Should he not step aside, Pruitt will have the power to make EPA settle cases he brought against it on own his terms. In other words, he will be in control of both sides of the case.

Bold Move by Governor Could Provide Massive Spending on Water Quality

But although governance over water at the federal level may seem distressing to some, there was positive news out of New York.

Last week in his state of the state address Governor Andrew Cuomo proposed 2 billion dollars be spent on improving water quality in the Buffalo Niagara region and the rest of New York State.

Environmentalists were happily shocked by the proposal describing it as amazing, according to the Buffalo News, and state senator Timothy Kennedy called the investment “visionary.”

Cuomo’s plan will not only involve replacing water and sewer lines but will also pay for ways to prevent water pollution in the first place such as keeping contaminants like manure and pesticides as well as road salt from running off the land into creeks and streams. The proposal would pursue improved land management policies and green infrastructure projects like constructed wetlands that filter runoff before it reaches a sewage system.

An Acoustic Enigma in the Arctic

There’s an unsolved mystery in a remote region near the Arctic Circle and now the Canadian military is going to investigate. The government is dispatching acoustic specialists in response to local Inuit concerns about a strange beeping sound emanating from the ocean floor.

Residents of the tiny village of Igloolik have been hearing the ping since last fall and they say it’s loud enough to be heard through boats hulls. Worse, it’s scaring away the sea mammals they rely on for food. The hamlet is located between the Northwest Passage and Hudson Bay, a migratory passage for bowhead whales, narwhals, and seals, but local legislator Paul Quassa told the CBC that this past summer they disappeared.

The Canadian Forces dispatched aircraft to the region, but didn’t detect any sounds at the time.

There are no shortage theories about the mystery. Locals suggest it's related to sonar surveys by a mining company, extracting iron ore from Canada's Baffin Island although the company told the CBC it isn't surveying in that area. Others say it could be generated on purpose by Greenpeace to scare wildlife away because they opposed seal hunt in the 70s and 80s. Greenpeace denies that assertion.

Or the sound could be completely natural. Scientists have noted several unusual sounds coming from our oceans such as reef fish who “sing” at dawn and dusk or the waves in the Caribbean that “whistle” so loud they can be detected from space.

Even if the mysterious ping turns out to be natural and harmless, Quassa said that staying attuned to our environment is always a good idea. Strange sounds, sights and smells could provide an early warning of some building ecological problem, and people who live nearby are the first line of defense.

A "Fin"-tasitic Way to Relieve Stress

merfolk And finally, this weekend saw millions march around the globe for women’s rights and human rights. Not to make light of those demonstrations, but there’s been another small group making waves for their rights, too—the freedom to be mermaids.

The MerNetwork is a Seattle community whose members are giving up their lives on land for one in the sea. To be clear the group and their forum where mermaids and mermen connect has nothing to do with the recent election. It’s about being true to yourself.

Take Caitlin Nielsen, a thirty-year-old who prefers to be known by her mermaid name, "Cyanea." Even though she has a degree in biology, she quit her job in that field so she could be a mermaid full-time. She supports herself by crafting handmade tails out of silicon.

For Ed Brown, being a “merperson” is about being comfortable with who you are and has helped them overcome social anxiety. Mermaid Tessie agrees. She told Barcroft TV that being in a community like this has helped with body insecurities, and she also uses her role as a mermaid to promote ocean conservation.

All three say that when they dive into a pool or the ocean, the act of being a mythical-creature is a chance to live out a dream or fantasy—and give them a way to temporarily escape from reality.

Wow. Given the direction of our country right now, we’re thinking of getting some mermaid tails of our own.

"A Massive Federal Payout for Water Contamination" and other headlines for the week ending January 15, 2017
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Atmospheric Rivers Deliver Some of What Was Needed in California – But at What Cost

So-called “Atmospheric Rivers” came roaring into the West last week and the weather phenomenon put some record-breaking numbers on the scoreboard. Atmospheric Rivers are streams of moist air up to hundreds of miles wide that can carry roughly as much water as the Mississippi River.

By mid-week the latest one dumped more than 5 and half inches of rain on San Francisco - and in LA, the rain level was 167% of average for this point in the season. But where it really counts is in the Sierra Nevada mountains because snow there will be much of California’s water supply come spring and summer. An astounding 12 feet of the white stuff fell in the Tahoe area that had rivers like the Truckee swelling.

While all this moisture might be good for the parched state, it's potentially disastrous for endangered salmon. Aquatic Ecologist, Eric Ettlinger, told SF Gate that in the North Bay of San Francisco, raging torrents are destroying newly laid Coho salmon eggs. The Coho live in creeks in dense redwood forests that have been running low because of the drought. Now they have the opposite problem. Of course, the question many are asking is what effect these storms may have on the California Drought.

The U.S. Drought Monitor reported that over 40% of California is no longer in a drought. And the snowpack in the Sierras last week was 163% of normal. Mandatory water restrictions may be lifted this spring, but heavy moisture now does not mean it will continue. And, if restrictions are not relaxed now when so much precipitation occurs, officials worry that people will not take conservation measures seriously when they are needed again.

Peter Gleick of the Pacific Institute wrote in the San Jose Mercury News that the real question to ask is not whether the drought is over, but rather: is water being managed sustainably—and he said it was not.

There is Improvement in Flint but Frustrations Boiled over at a Recent Town Hall Meeting

A town hall meeting last week in Flint, Michigan addressed the continuing water crisis. Government officials told residents that they need to continue to use filters or bottled water, and it will take probably 3 years to replace all the water lines in the city. That did not go over very well.

At times people crunched empty plastic water bottles as a protest, And some shouted at the panel.

Things have improved somewhat. The Detroit News reports that lead levels are down in Flint, and Marc Edwards a Virginia Tech scientist who initially assisted in identifying the problem, said that bacteria levels are dramatically lower than a year ago. Replacing pipelines quickly has been hindered by a lack of funding.

Families Who Suffer from Cancer and Other Illnesses Due to Contaminated Water May Finally Get Relief

From the late 1950s until the late 80s close to one million people who served in the U.S. military were stationed at Camp Lejeune in North Carolina. They all were possibly exposed to drinking water contaminated with various toxic chemicals.

The federal government agreed last week to provide over $2 billion in disability benefits to those who contracted certain illnesses and conditions because of the exposure. The contamination was from industrial chemicals that were stored in leaking tanks and included benzene, vinyl chloride and perchloroethylene, among others. They can cause several types of cancers and various illnesses.

Jerry Ensminger, who heads up the veterans’ group advocating for benefits, told US News that it has been a long hard slog to get to the settlement. His daughter was born while he was stationed at Lejeune and died of leukemia when she was nine. He has been fighting for 20 years to get the federal government to admit that people at the camp were exposed to the contaminated water. It was his case that prompted Congress to pass a law in 2012 giving medical care to affected service men and their families.

Another Case of Congress Repealing, and Then Replacing with What?

Besides the Affordable Care Act, the new Congress led by Republicans is preparing to eviscerate another Obama Administration plan. This time it’s a rule proposed by the EPA and the Army Corps of Engineers that would define what is covered under the Clean Water Act.

In 2015 the two agencies crafted a rule that critics say expands the government’s authority to regulate bodies of water. But the rule never went into effect after opponents temporarily stopped it in court. That litigation is still pending but could become irrelevant if the Congress acts.

One of the typical examples raised by critics of the new rule is that it would allow regulation of puddles of water on a farmer’s land. They complain that the feds could stop what farmers say are routine activities, according to Ag Alert, a newspaper for California agriculture.

The real difficulty is to determine what should be regulated under the Clean Water Act. Supreme Court decisions have not clarified what water or wetlands are protected.

The Congress may overturn the EPA’s definition through legislation before court cases can try to resolve the issue. Just like the Affordable Care Act, however, they don’t know what should come next. And it is likely they will return the issue to EPA and the Army Corps to develop new definitions.

Receding Reservoir Reveals Remarkable Relic - Really

And finally, this story is not about a disappearing act, but rather, a reappearing one. It all started back in 1958 when a vast water project was constructed in southeast China that submerged 63 villages and towns beneath a reservoir.

Recently, the lake’s levels had to be lowered about 30 feet to renovate a hydropower gate. As the water levels dropped, local villagers discovered something breathtaking—a centuries-old statue of the Buddha emerged, with his head peeking just above the water line!

Based on the style of the statue’s head, experts believe the Buddha was carved in the Ming Dynasty, which ruled China from the 14th to 17th century. The retreating water also revealed rectangular holes carved into the cliff which could mean that a temple existed there.

Currently archaeologists are on-site with sonar equipment to perform an underwater investigation. Maybe they’ll discover some of the Buddha’s wisdom about water? Like this quote?

Drop by drop is the water pot filled. Likewise, the wise man, gathering it little by little, fills himself with good.

Or that old adage “keep your head above water.” Either way, sage advice and we’ll work to fill your intellectual reservoirs with good information this year.

Photo Credit: People's Daily, China

"Living in the Stone Age in 2017" and other headlines for the week ending January 8, 2017
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Yet Another Day Without Water in Damascus

While many people rang in the new year with celebrations last Sunday, over five and half million in Damascus woke up to yet another day without water. Residents in the war-torn capitol of Syria, have been struggling for more than two weeks to get water after their two main supplies were cut off. An official writing for the catholic charity, Caritas, likened the situation to being back in the stone age.

Some residents have been able to access water for up to two hours every three or four days, and many have turned to private distributors, where neither price nor quality are regulated. There were also reports that the water that did make it to Damascus was contaminated with diesel fuel.

Now the United Nations Children’s Fund is warning that waterborne diseases are a risk to youth because they have only contaminated water to drink. A UNICEF spokesperson said that most children they met walked at least half an hour to the nearest mosque or public station to collect water where they had to wait in line for up to 2 hours in freezing temperatures.

A ceasefire had been arranged to allow engineers access to one of the water facilities to make repairs, however, Reuters reports as of January 8th that the Syrian government resumed airstrikes in the area as no truce was in place.

A Major Rift the Size of Delaware

Over the past several weeks a rift has been growing and it’s not political in nature. Instead, scientists warn that this crack will lead to a giant ice berg breaking off Antarctica. The new iceberg will be about the size of Delaware, and will be one of the ten largest ever observed.

But the breakaway of this berg is not a climate event so much as it is a geographical—according to the researchers who spoke to the BBC. The crack that is leading to the break-up has been present for decades, they say, but it has grown much more recently.

The scientists believe that climate warming has advanced the likely separation of the iceberg, but say they have no direct evidence to support this conclusion. The rift in the ice is currently about 100 miles long, and only 12 miles of ice connects the large mass to the main ice shelf. The breakoff of this massive iceberg is significant because the resulting ice front will be at its most retreated position ever recorded, and will leave the whole ice shelf vulnerable to future disintegration.

January Weather comes in like a lion but will it bring drought relief for California?

Weather is a big news story as we enter 2017. On the west coast, the year is starting of a lot wetter than in the recent past. A powerful storm dropped up to four feet of snow in mountain areas of northern California. The heavy moisture is going to continue. A massive atmospheric river is forecast to bring much additional rain.

Flood and flash flood watches have been posted for parts of northern and central California including the San Francisco Bay Area, western Nevada and southwest Oregon. Rainfall of up to a foot is possible on the western slope of the Sierras.

The coming storms this week are like a conveyor belt, according to Bill Patzert of NASA who spoke to the San Jose Mercury News saying, “You get this once in a decade.”

Will these storms end California’s water crisis? Doug Carlson with the California Department of Water Resources said that to get out of the drought there would need to be above-average precipitation, and above average water content in snow which would need to continue the entire year.

A New Kind of “Seal Team Six” Will Have Their Riskiest Mission Ever

Since the early 1960s the U.S. Navy has used dolphins to locate underwater mines and detect enemy swimmers. But now some of these highly trained marine mammals will have a new assignment that might be their riskiest ever.

A group of military bottlenose dolphins, dubbed the “Seal Team Six,” will use their deep-diving and sonar skills to save what can arguably be called the planet’s cutest—but most endangered marine mammal—the “vaquita.”

Vaquita are shy and tiny porpoises that have been under threat since the 1990s, mostly from drowning in gillnets that local fishermen use to catch another critically endangered fish called a “totoaba.”

The totoaba’s swim bladder, has been called “aquatic cocaine” because of its high-street value in Asia where it’s sold on the black market as an anti-aging cure. A totoaba bladder can fetch as much as $5,000 a pound according to the Huffington Post.

Jim Fallin of the U.S. Navy Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific told The Associated Press that his team, in collaboration with Mexican authorities, plans to deploy dolphins to the Gulf of California―the only place in the world where the vaquita live. If one of his Seal Team Six dolphins finds a rare vaquita, they’ll swim to the surface to alert their handlers. If the Navy can actually capture an elusive vaquita, the mammal would be transported to a special holding facility for protection.

The mission is considered risky because vaquita have never been known to thrive in captivity. For that reason, not everyone is on board with the plan. Omar Vidal, director general of the World Wildlife Fund of Mexico, told the online journal Science that the risk of killing a vaquita while catching them is too high given that there are only estimated to be 50 or 60 animals left in the world. Barbara Taylor, a marine mammal geneticist with NOAA told the Verge the better strategy is to help the remaining vaquitas live in the wild by increasing enforcement of the gillnet ban.

Go Ahead and Blow Off that New Year's Resolution

It’s become an annual ritual. On January 1st, thousands of people around the globe leap into icy waters of a lake or pond to welcome in the New Year. From Brooklyn to Berlin thrill-seekers worldwide, some in costume, some just in skimpy bathing suits, braved frigid waters for an adrenaline rush, in many cases to raise money for a cause or just for bragging rights of doing something kooky.

“Polar plunges” as they’re called are becoming increasingly popular, but we wondered: are they safe?

According to Joseph Herrera, director of sports medicine at Mount Sinai Medical School in New York, probably not. In an interview with Popular Science he said the human body isn’t really suited for freezing water. As soon as you enter the water your body goes into something called “cold-shock” which is an involuntary response that makes you take a giant gasping breath. The cold water causes blood vessels to constrict to maintain heat on the outer part of the body, which makes it harder for the heart to pump blood to internal organs.

While some people tout the “health benefits” of such shocks to the body, Herrera says there’s no science to back that up.

But if you’re determined to make this annual rite of passage his advice is to train—and start now. Swimming in cold water during the year will help you pack on extra fat to keep you warm next January.

But that might conflict with that other resolution you make every year—to lose that spare tire.

Miss older episodes? Hear all segments from 2016

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